Controlling Nerve Growth with an Electric Field Induced Indirectly in Transparent Conductive Substrate Materials

Ann M. Rajnicek (Corresponding Author), Zhiqiang Zhao, Javier Moral-Vico, Ana Cruz, Colin McCaig, Nieves Casan-Pastor (Corresponding Author)

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Abstract

Innovative neurostimulation therapies require improved electrode materials, such as poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers or IrOx mixed ionic–electronic conductors and better understanding of how their electrochemistry influences nerve growth. Amphibian neurons growing on transparent films of electronic (metal) conductors and electronic–ionic conductors (polymers and semiconducting oxides) are monitored. Materials are not connected directly to the power supply, but a dipole is created wirelessly within them by electrodes connected to the culture medium in which they are immersed. Without electrical stimulation neurons grow on gold, platinum, PEDOT‐polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT‐PSS), IrOx, and mixed oxide (Ir‐Ti)Ox, but growth is not related to surface texture or hydrophilicity. Stimulation induces a dipole in all conductive materials, but neurons grow differently on electronic conductors and mixed‐valence mixed‐ionic conductors. Stimulation slows, but steers neurite extension on gold but not on platinum. The rate and direction of neurite growth on PEDOT‐PSS resemble that on glass, but on IrOx and (Ir‐Ti)Ox neurites grow faster and in random directions. This suggests electrochemical changes induced in these materials control growth speed and direction selectively. Evidence that the electric dipole induced in conductive material controls nerve growth will impact electrotherapies exploiting wireless stimulation of implanted material arrays, even where transparency is required.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1800473
JournalAdvanced Healthcare Materials
Volume7
Issue number17
Early online date5 Jul 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sep 2018

Fingerprint

Electric fields
Neurites
Neurons
Substrates
Growth
Conductive materials
Platinum
Gold
Oxides
Polymers
Electrodes
Electric Stimulation Therapy
Electrochemistry
Electric Power Supplies
Investigational Therapies
Hydrophilicity
Amphibians
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
Transparency
Electric Stimulation

Keywords

  • conducting polymers
  • bipolar electrochemistry
  • neurostimulation
  • transparent electrodes
  • oxides

Cite this

Controlling Nerve Growth with an Electric Field Induced Indirectly in Transparent Conductive Substrate Materials. / Rajnicek, Ann M. (Corresponding Author); Zhao, Zhiqiang; Moral-Vico, Javier; Cruz, Ana; McCaig, Colin; Casan-Pastor, Nieves (Corresponding Author).

In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, Vol. 7, No. 17, 1800473, 05.09.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Innovative neurostimulation therapies require improved electrode materials, such as poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers or IrOx mixed ionic–electronic conductors and better understanding of how their electrochemistry influences nerve growth. Amphibian neurons growing on transparent films of electronic (metal) conductors and electronic–ionic conductors (polymers and semiconducting oxides) are monitored. Materials are not connected directly to the power supply, but a dipole is created wirelessly within them by electrodes connected to the culture medium in which they are immersed. Without electrical stimulation neurons grow on gold, platinum, PEDOT‐polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT‐PSS), IrOx, and mixed oxide (Ir‐Ti)Ox, but growth is not related to surface texture or hydrophilicity. Stimulation induces a dipole in all conductive materials, but neurons grow differently on electronic conductors and mixed‐valence mixed‐ionic conductors. Stimulation slows, but steers neurite extension on gold but not on platinum. The rate and direction of neurite growth on PEDOT‐PSS resemble that on glass, but on IrOx and (Ir‐Ti)Ox neurites grow faster and in random directions. This suggests electrochemical changes induced in these materials control growth speed and direction selectively. Evidence that the electric dipole induced in conductive material controls nerve growth will impact electrotherapies exploiting wireless stimulation of implanted material arrays, even where transparency is required.",
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