Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite?

J. E. Blundell, R. J. Stubbs, D. A. Hughes, Stephen Whybrow, N. A. King

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

177 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Physical activity has the potential to modulate appetite control by improving the sensitivity of the physiological satiety signalling system, by adjusting macronutrient preferences or food choices and by altering the hedonic response to food. There is evidence for all these actions. Concerning the impact of physical activity on energy balance, there exists a belief that physical activity drives up hunger and increases food intake, thereby rendering it futile as a method of weight control. There is, however, no evidence for such an immediate or automatic effect. Short (1-2 d)-term and medium (7-16 d)-term studies demonstrate that men and women can tolerate substantial negative energy balances of less than or equal to 4 MJ energy cost/d when performing physical activity programmes. Consequently, the immediate effect of taking up exercise is weight loss (although this outcome is sometimes difficult to assess due to changes in body composition or fluid compartmentalization). However, subsequently food intake begins to increase in order to provide compensation for about 30 % of the energy expended in activity. This compensation (up to 16 d) is partial and incomplete. Moreover, subjects separate into compensators and non-compensators. The exact nature of these differences in compensation and whether it is actually reflective of non-compliance with protocols is yet to be determined. Some subjects (men and women) performing activity with a cost of less than or equal to4 MJ/d for 14 d, show no change in daily energy intake. Conversely, it can be demonstrated that when active individuals are forced into a sedentary routine food intake does not decrease to a lower level to match the reduced energy expenditure. Consequently, this situation creates a substantial positive energy balance accompanied by weight gain. The next stage is to further characterize the compensators and non-compensators, and to identify the mechanisms (physiological or behavioural) that are responsible for the rate of compensation and its limits.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)651-661
Number of pages11
JournalProceedings of the Nutrition Society
Volume62
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2003

Fingerprint

Appetite
Compensation and Redress
Exercise
Eating
Costs and Cost Analysis
Food Preferences
Pleasure
Hunger
Body Fluids
Body Composition
Energy Intake
Energy Metabolism
Weight Gain
Weight Loss
Weights and Measures
Food

Keywords

  • energy balance
  • physical activity
  • appetite
  • Energy-expenditure
  • food-intake
  • body-composition
  • exercise
  • balance

Cite this

Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite? / Blundell, J. E.; Stubbs, R. J.; Hughes, D. A.; Whybrow, Stephen; King, N. A.

In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol. 62, No. 3, 2003, p. 651-661.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Blundell, J. E. ; Stubbs, R. J. ; Hughes, D. A. ; Whybrow, Stephen ; King, N. A. / Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite?. In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2003 ; Vol. 62, No. 3. pp. 651-661.
@article{81822e314da04a64a58af32ac34db63a,
title = "Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite?",
abstract = "Physical activity has the potential to modulate appetite control by improving the sensitivity of the physiological satiety signalling system, by adjusting macronutrient preferences or food choices and by altering the hedonic response to food. There is evidence for all these actions. Concerning the impact of physical activity on energy balance, there exists a belief that physical activity drives up hunger and increases food intake, thereby rendering it futile as a method of weight control. There is, however, no evidence for such an immediate or automatic effect. Short (1-2 d)-term and medium (7-16 d)-term studies demonstrate that men and women can tolerate substantial negative energy balances of less than or equal to 4 MJ energy cost/d when performing physical activity programmes. Consequently, the immediate effect of taking up exercise is weight loss (although this outcome is sometimes difficult to assess due to changes in body composition or fluid compartmentalization). However, subsequently food intake begins to increase in order to provide compensation for about 30 {\%} of the energy expended in activity. This compensation (up to 16 d) is partial and incomplete. Moreover, subjects separate into compensators and non-compensators. The exact nature of these differences in compensation and whether it is actually reflective of non-compliance with protocols is yet to be determined. Some subjects (men and women) performing activity with a cost of less than or equal to4 MJ/d for 14 d, show no change in daily energy intake. Conversely, it can be demonstrated that when active individuals are forced into a sedentary routine food intake does not decrease to a lower level to match the reduced energy expenditure. Consequently, this situation creates a substantial positive energy balance accompanied by weight gain. The next stage is to further characterize the compensators and non-compensators, and to identify the mechanisms (physiological or behavioural) that are responsible for the rate of compensation and its limits.",
keywords = "energy balance, physical activity, appetite, Energy-expenditure, food-intake, body-composition, exercise, balance",
author = "Blundell, {J. E.} and Stubbs, {R. J.} and Hughes, {D. A.} and Stephen Whybrow and King, {N. A.}",
note = "1555; GOT Article AUG PROC NUTR SOC-ENGL SCOT",
year = "2003",
language = "English",
volume = "62",
pages = "651--661",
journal = "Proceedings of the Nutrition Society",
issn = "0029-6651",
publisher = "Cambridge Univ. Press.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite?

AU - Blundell, J. E.

AU - Stubbs, R. J.

AU - Hughes, D. A.

AU - Whybrow, Stephen

AU - King, N. A.

N1 - 1555; GOT Article AUG PROC NUTR SOC-ENGL SCOT

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - Physical activity has the potential to modulate appetite control by improving the sensitivity of the physiological satiety signalling system, by adjusting macronutrient preferences or food choices and by altering the hedonic response to food. There is evidence for all these actions. Concerning the impact of physical activity on energy balance, there exists a belief that physical activity drives up hunger and increases food intake, thereby rendering it futile as a method of weight control. There is, however, no evidence for such an immediate or automatic effect. Short (1-2 d)-term and medium (7-16 d)-term studies demonstrate that men and women can tolerate substantial negative energy balances of less than or equal to 4 MJ energy cost/d when performing physical activity programmes. Consequently, the immediate effect of taking up exercise is weight loss (although this outcome is sometimes difficult to assess due to changes in body composition or fluid compartmentalization). However, subsequently food intake begins to increase in order to provide compensation for about 30 % of the energy expended in activity. This compensation (up to 16 d) is partial and incomplete. Moreover, subjects separate into compensators and non-compensators. The exact nature of these differences in compensation and whether it is actually reflective of non-compliance with protocols is yet to be determined. Some subjects (men and women) performing activity with a cost of less than or equal to4 MJ/d for 14 d, show no change in daily energy intake. Conversely, it can be demonstrated that when active individuals are forced into a sedentary routine food intake does not decrease to a lower level to match the reduced energy expenditure. Consequently, this situation creates a substantial positive energy balance accompanied by weight gain. The next stage is to further characterize the compensators and non-compensators, and to identify the mechanisms (physiological or behavioural) that are responsible for the rate of compensation and its limits.

AB - Physical activity has the potential to modulate appetite control by improving the sensitivity of the physiological satiety signalling system, by adjusting macronutrient preferences or food choices and by altering the hedonic response to food. There is evidence for all these actions. Concerning the impact of physical activity on energy balance, there exists a belief that physical activity drives up hunger and increases food intake, thereby rendering it futile as a method of weight control. There is, however, no evidence for such an immediate or automatic effect. Short (1-2 d)-term and medium (7-16 d)-term studies demonstrate that men and women can tolerate substantial negative energy balances of less than or equal to 4 MJ energy cost/d when performing physical activity programmes. Consequently, the immediate effect of taking up exercise is weight loss (although this outcome is sometimes difficult to assess due to changes in body composition or fluid compartmentalization). However, subsequently food intake begins to increase in order to provide compensation for about 30 % of the energy expended in activity. This compensation (up to 16 d) is partial and incomplete. Moreover, subjects separate into compensators and non-compensators. The exact nature of these differences in compensation and whether it is actually reflective of non-compliance with protocols is yet to be determined. Some subjects (men and women) performing activity with a cost of less than or equal to4 MJ/d for 14 d, show no change in daily energy intake. Conversely, it can be demonstrated that when active individuals are forced into a sedentary routine food intake does not decrease to a lower level to match the reduced energy expenditure. Consequently, this situation creates a substantial positive energy balance accompanied by weight gain. The next stage is to further characterize the compensators and non-compensators, and to identify the mechanisms (physiological or behavioural) that are responsible for the rate of compensation and its limits.

KW - energy balance

KW - physical activity

KW - appetite

KW - Energy-expenditure

KW - food-intake

KW - body-composition

KW - exercise

KW - balance

M3 - Article

VL - 62

SP - 651

EP - 661

JO - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

JF - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

SN - 0029-6651

IS - 3

ER -