Day-to-day mastery and self-efficacy changes during a smoking quit attempt: Two studies

Lisa M. Warner, Gertraud Stadler, Janina Lüscher, Nina Knoll, Sibylle Ochsner, Rainer Hornung, Urte Scholz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Objective: In social-cognitive theory it is hypothesized that mastery experiences (successfully implementing behaviour change) are a source of self-efficacy, and self-efficacy increases the opportunity for experiencing mastery. Vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) are suggested as another source of self-efficacy. However, the hypothesis of this reciprocal relationship has not been tested using a day-to-day design.

Design: This article reports findings from two intensive longitudinal studies, testing the reciprocal relationship of self-efficacy and its two main sources within the naturally occurring process of quitting smoking (without intervention). Smokers (Study 1: N = 100 smokers in smoker-non-smoker couples (1787 observations); Study 2; N = 81 female (1401 observations) and N = 79 male smokers (1328 observations) in dual-smoker couples) reported their mastery experiences (not smoking the entire day; in Study 2, mastery experience of partner served as vicarious experience) and smoking-specific self-efficacy for 21 days after a self-set quit date.

Methods: Time-lagged multilevel analyses were conducted using change-predicting-change models.

Results: Increases in mastery experiences predicted changes in self-efficacy, and increases in self-efficacy predicted changes in mastery experiences in Study 1. Study 2 replicated these results and showed contagion effects (partners’ mastery on individuals’ mastery, and partners’ self-efficacy on individuals’ self-efficacy), but found no evidence for a link between vicarious experiences (partners’ mastery experiences) and individuals’ self-efficacy.

Conclusions: This article demonstrates that mastery experiences and self-efficacy show a reciprocal relationship within smokers during a quit attempt in a day-to-day design, as well as contagion effects in couples when both partners try to quit simultaneously.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)371-386
Number of pages16
JournalBritish Journal of Health Psychology
Volume23
Issue number2
Early online date15 Jan 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2018

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Self Efficacy
Smoking
Multilevel Analysis
Longitudinal Studies

Keywords

  • social-cognitive theory
  • sources of self-efficacy
  • couples
  • daily diary
  • ecological momentary assessment
  • intensive longitudinal

Cite this

Day-to-day mastery and self-efficacy changes during a smoking quit attempt : Two studies. / Warner, Lisa M.; Stadler, Gertraud; Lüscher, Janina; Knoll, Nina; Ochsner, Sibylle ; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte.

In: British Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 23, No. 2, 05.2018, p. 371-386.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Warner, Lisa M. ; Stadler, Gertraud ; Lüscher, Janina ; Knoll, Nina ; Ochsner, Sibylle ; Hornung, Rainer ; Scholz, Urte. / Day-to-day mastery and self-efficacy changes during a smoking quit attempt : Two studies. In: British Journal of Health Psychology. 2018 ; Vol. 23, No. 2. pp. 371-386.
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title = "Day-to-day mastery and self-efficacy changes during a smoking quit attempt: Two studies",
abstract = "Objective: In social-cognitive theory it is hypothesized that mastery experiences (successfully implementing behaviour change) are a source of self-efficacy, and self-efficacy increases the opportunity for experiencing mastery. Vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) are suggested as another source of self-efficacy. However, the hypothesis of this reciprocal relationship has not been tested using a day-to-day design.Design: This article reports findings from two intensive longitudinal studies, testing the reciprocal relationship of self-efficacy and its two main sources within the naturally occurring process of quitting smoking (without intervention). Smokers (Study 1: N = 100 smokers in smoker-non-smoker couples (1787 observations); Study 2; N = 81 female (1401 observations) and N = 79 male smokers (1328 observations) in dual-smoker couples) reported their mastery experiences (not smoking the entire day; in Study 2, mastery experience of partner served as vicarious experience) and smoking-specific self-efficacy for 21 days after a self-set quit date.Methods: Time-lagged multilevel analyses were conducted using change-predicting-change models.Results: Increases in mastery experiences predicted changes in self-efficacy, and increases in self-efficacy predicted changes in mastery experiences in Study 1. Study 2 replicated these results and showed contagion effects (partners’ mastery on individuals’ mastery, and partners’ self-efficacy on individuals’ self-efficacy), but found no evidence for a link between vicarious experiences (partners’ mastery experiences) and individuals’ self-efficacy.Conclusions: This article demonstrates that mastery experiences and self-efficacy show a reciprocal relationship within smokers during a quit attempt in a day-to-day design, as well as contagion effects in couples when both partners try to quit simultaneously.",
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author = "Warner, {Lisa M.} and Gertraud Stadler and Janina L{\"u}scher and Nina Knoll and Sibylle Ochsner and Rainer Hornung and Urte Scholz",
note = "Funded by Swiss National Science Foundation. Grant Numbers: 100014_124516, PP00P1_133632/1, IZKOZT_L66834",
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AU - Warner, Lisa M.

AU - Stadler, Gertraud

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AU - Knoll, Nina

AU - Ochsner, Sibylle

AU - Hornung, Rainer

AU - Scholz, Urte

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N2 - Objective: In social-cognitive theory it is hypothesized that mastery experiences (successfully implementing behaviour change) are a source of self-efficacy, and self-efficacy increases the opportunity for experiencing mastery. Vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) are suggested as another source of self-efficacy. However, the hypothesis of this reciprocal relationship has not been tested using a day-to-day design.Design: This article reports findings from two intensive longitudinal studies, testing the reciprocal relationship of self-efficacy and its two main sources within the naturally occurring process of quitting smoking (without intervention). Smokers (Study 1: N = 100 smokers in smoker-non-smoker couples (1787 observations); Study 2; N = 81 female (1401 observations) and N = 79 male smokers (1328 observations) in dual-smoker couples) reported their mastery experiences (not smoking the entire day; in Study 2, mastery experience of partner served as vicarious experience) and smoking-specific self-efficacy for 21 days after a self-set quit date.Methods: Time-lagged multilevel analyses were conducted using change-predicting-change models.Results: Increases in mastery experiences predicted changes in self-efficacy, and increases in self-efficacy predicted changes in mastery experiences in Study 1. Study 2 replicated these results and showed contagion effects (partners’ mastery on individuals’ mastery, and partners’ self-efficacy on individuals’ self-efficacy), but found no evidence for a link between vicarious experiences (partners’ mastery experiences) and individuals’ self-efficacy.Conclusions: This article demonstrates that mastery experiences and self-efficacy show a reciprocal relationship within smokers during a quit attempt in a day-to-day design, as well as contagion effects in couples when both partners try to quit simultaneously.

AB - Objective: In social-cognitive theory it is hypothesized that mastery experiences (successfully implementing behaviour change) are a source of self-efficacy, and self-efficacy increases the opportunity for experiencing mastery. Vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) are suggested as another source of self-efficacy. However, the hypothesis of this reciprocal relationship has not been tested using a day-to-day design.Design: This article reports findings from two intensive longitudinal studies, testing the reciprocal relationship of self-efficacy and its two main sources within the naturally occurring process of quitting smoking (without intervention). Smokers (Study 1: N = 100 smokers in smoker-non-smoker couples (1787 observations); Study 2; N = 81 female (1401 observations) and N = 79 male smokers (1328 observations) in dual-smoker couples) reported their mastery experiences (not smoking the entire day; in Study 2, mastery experience of partner served as vicarious experience) and smoking-specific self-efficacy for 21 days after a self-set quit date.Methods: Time-lagged multilevel analyses were conducted using change-predicting-change models.Results: Increases in mastery experiences predicted changes in self-efficacy, and increases in self-efficacy predicted changes in mastery experiences in Study 1. Study 2 replicated these results and showed contagion effects (partners’ mastery on individuals’ mastery, and partners’ self-efficacy on individuals’ self-efficacy), but found no evidence for a link between vicarious experiences (partners’ mastery experiences) and individuals’ self-efficacy.Conclusions: This article demonstrates that mastery experiences and self-efficacy show a reciprocal relationship within smokers during a quit attempt in a day-to-day design, as well as contagion effects in couples when both partners try to quit simultaneously.

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KW - sources of self-efficacy

KW - couples

KW - daily diary

KW - ecological momentary assessment

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M3 - Article

VL - 23

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EP - 386

JO - British Journal of Health Psychology

JF - British Journal of Health Psychology

SN - 1359-107X

IS - 2

ER -