In a laser with delayed feedback operating in an oscillatory regime, phase defects appear for delays longer than the oscillation period. These defects are visualized by rearranging the data in a two-dimensional representation. Two distinct disordered phases are observed, one of weak turbulence characterized by phase fluctuations, and one of highly developed turbulence characterized by a constant density of defects. The transition between the two regimes is analyzed by studying the dependence of the defect lifetime on the delay. The experimental findings are modeled via a generalized Landau equation which includes a delayed coupling.
- chaotic attractors