BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptors protects against various forms of ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Delta(8)-Tetrahydrocannabivarin (Delta(8)-THCV) is a synthetic analogue of the plant cannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin, which exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in rodents involving activation of CB2 receptors. Here, we assessed effects of Delta(8)-THCV and its metabolite 11-OH-Delta(8)-THCV on CB2 receptors and against hepatic I/R injury.
Effects in vitro were measured with human CB2 receptors expressed in CHO cells. Hepatic I/R injury was assessed in mice with 1h ischaemia and 2, 6 or 24h reperfusion in vivo.
Displacement of [H-3]CP55940 by Delta(8)-THCV or 11-OH-Delta(8)-THCV from specific binding sites in CHO cell membranes transfected with human CB2 receptors (hCB(2)) yielded K-i values of 68.4 and 59.95 nM respectively. Delta(8)-THCV or 11-OH-Delta(8)-THCV inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production by hCB(2) CHO cells (EC50 = 12.95 and 14.3 nM respectively). Delta(8)-THCV, given before induction of I/R, attenuated hepatic injury (measured by serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels), decreased tissue protein carbonyl adducts, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, the chemokines CCL3 and CXCL2, TNF-alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) mRNA levels, tissue neutrophil infiltration, caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation. Protective effects of Delta(8)-THCV against liver damage were still present when the compound was given at the beginning of reperfusion. Pretreatment with a CB2 receptor antagonist attenuated the protective effects of Delta(8)-THCV, while a CB1 antagonist tended to enhance it.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Delta(8)-THCV activated CB2 receptors in vitro, and decreased tissue injury and inflammation in vivo, associated with I/R partly via CB2 receptor activation.
- oxidative stress
- ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY
- ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION INJURY
- DIABETIC CARDIOMYOPATHY