Recent studies have shown additive and synergistic effects associated with the combination of kinase inhibitors. BRAFV600E and EGFR are attractive targets for many diseases treatments and have been studied extensively. In keeping with our interest in developing anticancer targeting EGFR and BRAFV600E, a novel series of 2,3-dihydropyrazino[1,2-a]indole-1,4-dione has been rationally designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against a panel of four human cancer cell lines. Compounds 20–23, 28–31, and 33 showed promising antiproliferative activities. These compounds were further tested for their inhibitory potencies against EGFR and BRAFV600E kinases with erlotinib as a reference drug. Compounds 23 and 33 exhibited equipotency to doxorubicin against the four cell lines and efficiently inhibited both EGFR (IC50 = 0.08 and 0.09 µM, respectively) and BRAFV600E (IC50 = 0.1 and 0.29 µM, respectively). In cell cycle study of MCF-7 cell line, compounds 23 and 33 induced apoptosis and exhibited cell cycle arrest in both Pre-G1 and G2/M phases. Molecular docking analyses revealed that the new compounds can fit snugly into the active sites of EGFR, and BRAFV600E kinases. Compound 23, 31 and 33 adopted similar binding orientations and interactions to those of erlotinib and vemurafenib.