Development and psychometric evaluation of the Utrecht Grief Rumination Scale

Maarten C. Eisma, Margaret S. Stroebe, Henk A.W. Schut, Jan van den Bout, Paul A. Boelen, Wolfgang Stroebe

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Two different types of ruminative coping, depressive rumination and grief rumination, negatively influence bereavement outcome. Although grief-specific rumination is likely to be relevant in the bereavement context no internationally validated scale to measure grief rumination exists. Therefore, the current contribution aims to validate the Utrecht Grief Rumination Scale (UGRS), a scale developed to measure grief-specific rumination, in an English sample. Psychometric properties of the English UGRS were compared with those in a Dutch sample. 204 British adults (89 % women, 11 % men), bereaved on average 16 months ago, and 316 Dutch adults (88 % women, 12 % men), bereaved on average 12 months ago, filled out online questionnaires. Different types of rumination (grief rumination, brooding, reflection, trait rumination) and symptoms of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, complicated grief) were measured. A correlated five factor model provided the best fit for the UGRS. Multi-group comparisons showed that the factor structures of the English and Dutch version of the UGRS were highly similar across language groups. The UGRS showed excellent reliability. Results further supported the construct, convergent, divergent and concurrent validity of the English UGRS. The psychometric properties of the Dutch UGRS corroborated these findings. The UGRS appears a valid instrument to assess grief-specific rumination in international research and may have potential applicability as a clinical instrument to assess rumination in individuals with problematic grief.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-176
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Issue number1
Early online date23 Aug 2013
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014


  • rumination
  • scale
  • questionnaire
  • validation
  • grief
  • repetitive thought


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