Background: Targeted public awareness interventions are needed to improve earlier cancer diagnosis and reduce socioeconomic inequalities in cancer outcomes. The health check (intervention) is a touchscreen questionnaire delivered by trained lay advisors that aims to raise awareness of cancer symptoms and risk factors, and encourage timely help seeking. Purpose: Apply Behaviour Change Wheel to intervention refinement by identifying barriers and facilitators to timely symptom presentation among people living in socioeconomically deprived communities. Methods: Primary data (six focus groups with health professionals, community partners and public) and secondary data (systematic review of barriers and facilitators to cancer symptom presentation) were mapped iteratively to the Behaviour Change Wheel. Results: Barriers and facilitators were identified from the systematic review and focus groups comprising 14 members of the public aged over 40, 14 community partners and 14 healthcare professionals. Barriers included poor symptom knowledge and lack of motivation to engage in preventive or proactive behaviours. Facilitators included cues/prompts to action, general practitioner preparedness to listen, and social networks. The following behaviour change techniques were selected to address identified barriers and facilitators: information about health consequences, prompts/cues, credible sources, restricting physical and social environment, social support, goal setting and action planning. Conclusions: The Behaviour Change Wheel triangulated findings from primary and secondary data sources. An intervention combining education and enablement could encourage timely symptom presentation to primary care among people living in socioeconomically deprived communities. Social encouragement and support is needed to increase symptom knowledge, challenge negative cancer beliefs, and prompt decisions to engage with the healthcare system.
- Complex intervention
- Behavior change