Development of a new screening tool for neuromotor development in children aged two – the neuromotor 5 min exam 2-year-old version (N5E2)

Sayaka Aoki, Keiji Hashimoto, Hidetoshi Mezawa, Yuhei Hatakenaka, Kahoko Yasumitsu-Lovell, Narufumi Suganuma, Philip Wilson, Elisabeth Fernell, Yoko Kamio, Christopher Gillberg

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Abstract

Objective As a new screening tool for neuromotor development in children aged two, we developed the Neuromotor 5 min Exam 2-year-old version (N5E2), which can be easily administered by pediatricians or primary care physicians. In this study, as an initial attempt to  examine the utility of the N5E2, the inter-rater reliability on scoring  for the individual items in this scale was assessed.
Methods The participants of the study were 29 children (aged 1–5 years, mean
age = 2.79) diagnosed with a variety of neuromotor/developmental
disorders/high-risk conditions. Inter-rater reliability was examined on
the following 11 items in the N5E2: (1) Retrieving a rolling ball, (2) Gait, (3) Toe-walking, (4) Asymmetries of posture and/or movement, (5) Age at unsupported walking, (6) Speaking in two-word understandable sentences, (7) Hypotonus, (8) Hypertonus, (9) Eye movement, (10) Vision problem, (11) Hearing problem. The items were administered to children by two pediatricians with different expertise and clinical experience, separately.
Results The results showed that among the eleven items in the N5E2 examined, a high level of agreement (κ ≥ 0.60) was found on 4 items, and a moderate
level of agreement (0.40 ≤ κ < 0.60) was found on 5 items. The level of agreement somewhat improved after the dichotomization of the score;
using this format, a high level of rater agreement (κ ≥ 0.60) was found on 6 out of 11 items. The analyses also revealed high inter-rater reliability on the sum score of the 11 items (r = 0.84).
Conclusions The results suggest the possibility that this brief screening tool could be feasible in settings where clinicians’ experience varies, based on its
inter-rater reliability on individual items between the clinicians with different expertise and amount of clinical experiences.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)445-451
Number of pages7
JournalBrain & Development
Volume40
Issue number6
Early online date21 Feb 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018

Keywords

  • Neuromotor development
  • Developmental disabilities
  • screening
  • Inter-rater reliability
  • Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS)
  • Young children

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    Aoki, S., Hashimoto, K., Mezawa, H., Hatakenaka, Y., Yasumitsu-Lovell, K., Suganuma, N., Wilson, P., Fernell, E., Kamio, Y., & Gillberg, C. (2018). Development of a new screening tool for neuromotor development in children aged two – the neuromotor 5 min exam 2-year-old version (N5E2). Brain & Development, 40(6), 445-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2018.01.012