Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of medical devices used as diagnostic and therapeutic tools for the management of anaemia and bleeding in cardiac surgery.
Methods and results: Workstream 1 – in the COagulation and Platelet laboratory Testing in Cardiac surgery (COPTIC) study we demonstrated that risk assessment using baseline clinical factors predicted bleeding with a high degree of accuracy. The results from point-of-care (POC) platelet aggregometry or viscoelastometry tests or an expanded range of laboratory reference tests for coagulopathy did not improve predictive accuracy beyond that achieved with the clinical risk score alone. The routine use of POC tests was not cost-effective. A systematic review concluded that POC-based algorithms are not clinically effective. We developed two new clinical risk prediction scores for transfusion and bleeding that are available as e-calculators. Workstream 2 – in the PAtient-SPecific Oxygen monitoring to Reduce blood Transfusion during heart surgery (PASPORT) trial and a systematic review we demonstrated that personalised near-infrared spectroscopy-based algorithms for the optimisation of tissue oxygenation, or as indicators for red cell transfusion, were neither clinically effective nor cost-effective. Workstream 3 – in the REDWASH trial we failed to demonstrate a reduction in inflammation or organ injury in recipients of mechanically washed red cells compared with standard (unwashed) red cells