Introduction Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are a significant health burden globally. Smoking, alcohol, and betel quid are the main risk factors. Lack of screening methods has been highlighted as a significant challenge in management. Salivary biomarkers are proposed as noninvasive diagnostic tools. The aim of this systematic review was to study salivary biomarkers reported in OSCC and OPMD. Specific objectives were to select a salivary biomarker panel suitable for early detection of OSCC and OPMD and to assess relationships between salivary biomarkers and risk factors. Methods Electronic literature search was conducted in academic databases (Scopus, Medline, Embase and Web of Science) without any restrictions. Following calibration, two blinded reviewers screened the studies and extracted data. A risk of bias assessment was conducted using Newcastle Ottawa scale. 295 studies were included with descriptive data analysis. Expert opinion A salivary biomarker panel including Interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL6, and IL8 was selected for OSCC and OPMD. Reported relationships between salivary biomarkers and risk factors are discussed and research gaps are highlighted. Future research should be directed to assess potential salivary biomarkers and their relationships to risk factors in order to understand the biomarker's role in disease initiation.
- Oral squamous cell carcinoma
- oral potentially malignant disorders
- risk factors
- salivary biomarkers