Diet, environmental factors, and lifestyle underlie the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adults in Scotland, and supplementation reduces the proportion that are severely deficient

Lina Zgaga, Evropi Theodoratou, Susan M Farrington, Felix Agakov, Albert Tenesa, Marion Walker, Susan Knox, A Michael Wallace, Roseanne Cetnarskyj, Geraldine McNeill, Janet Kyle, Mary E Porteous, Malcolm G Dunlop, Harry Campbell

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57 Citations (Scopus)


Vitamin D deficiency has recently been implicated as a possible risk factor in the etiology of numerous diseases, including nonskeletal conditions. In humans, skin synthesis following exposure to UVB is a potent source of vitamin D, but in regions with low UVB, individuals are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to investigate determinants of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentrations in a high northern latitude country. Detailed dietary, lifestyle, and demographic data were collected for 2235 healthy adults (21-82 y) from Scotland. Plasma 25-OHD was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Among study participants, 34.5% were severely deficient (25-OHD 40 nmol/L). Among participants who were taking supplements, 21.3% had a May-standardized 25-OHD concentration >50 nmol/L, 54.2% had 25-50 nmol/L, and 24.5% had
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1535-1542
Number of pages8
JournalThe Journal of Nutrition
Issue number8
Early online date22 Jun 2011
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2011



  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Diet
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Scotland
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D Deficiency

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