Dietary carbohydrate rather than protein intake drives colonic microbial fermentation during weight loss

S W Gratz (Corresponding Author), S Hazim, A J Richardson, L Scobbie, A M Johnstone, C Fyfe, G Holtrop, G E Lobley, W R Russell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Purpose
High protein weight loss diets are effective in aiding body weight management. However, high protein and low carbohydrate intakes can alter colonic fermentation profiles in humans and may impact on colonic health. This study aims to identify the most important dietary contributors to colonic fermentation during diet-controlled weight loss.

Methods
Overweight or obese male volunteers (n = 18) consumed a body weight maintenance diet (fed at 1.5× basic metabolic rate, BMR) followed by three weight loss diets (fed at 1× BMR) for 10 days each in a cross-over design. Weight loss diets were designed as normal protein (NPWL, 15% of energy from protein, 55% from carbohydrate), normal protein enriched with free amino acids and moderate amounts of carbohydrate (NPAAWL, 15% of energy from protein, 15% from free AA, 40% from carbohydrate) or high protein containing moderate amounts of carbohydrate (HPWL, 30% of energy from protein, 40% from carbohydrate). Faecal samples collected at the end of each diet period were profiled for dietary metabolites using LC–MS/MS.

Results
This study shows that the NPWL diet only induced very minor changes in the faecal metabolome, whereas NPAAWL and HPWL diets decreased carbohydrate-related metabolites (butyrate, ferulic acid) and increased protein-related metabolites. Most faecal metabolites were correlated with dietary carbohydrate and not protein intake.

Conclusion
This study demonstrates that dietary carbohydrate is the main driver of colonic fermentation in humans and that a balance between dietary carbohydrate and protein should be maintained when designing safe, effective and healthy weight loss diets.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1147-1158
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume58
Issue number3
Early online date20 Feb 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019

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Dietary Carbohydrates
Fermentation
Weight Loss
Reducing Diet
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Diet
ferulic acid
Metabolome
Dietary Proteins
Butyrates
Cross-Over Studies
Volunteers
Body Weight

Keywords

  • faecal metabolome
  • ferulic acid
  • butyrate
  • fermentation
  • amino acids
  • dietary fibre
  • Faecal metabolome
  • Amino acids
  • Dietary fibre
  • Fermentation
  • Butyrate
  • Ferulic acid
  • METABOLITES
  • RED MEAT
  • GUT
  • BUTYRATE-PRODUCING BACTERIA

Cite this

Dietary carbohydrate rather than protein intake drives colonic microbial fermentation during weight loss. / Gratz, S W (Corresponding Author); Hazim, S; Richardson, A J; Scobbie, L; Johnstone, A M; Fyfe, C; Holtrop, G; Lobley, G E; Russell, W R.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 58, No. 3, 04.2019, p. 1147-1158.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Dietary carbohydrate rather than protein intake drives colonic microbial fermentation during weight loss",
abstract = "PurposeHigh protein weight loss diets are effective in aiding body weight management. However, high protein and low carbohydrate intakes can alter colonic fermentation profiles in humans and may impact on colonic health. This study aims to identify the most important dietary contributors to colonic fermentation during diet-controlled weight loss.MethodsOverweight or obese male volunteers (n = 18) consumed a body weight maintenance diet (fed at 1.5× basic metabolic rate, BMR) followed by three weight loss diets (fed at 1× BMR) for 10 days each in a cross-over design. Weight loss diets were designed as normal protein (NPWL, 15{\%} of energy from protein, 55{\%} from carbohydrate), normal protein enriched with free amino acids and moderate amounts of carbohydrate (NPAAWL, 15{\%} of energy from protein, 15{\%} from free AA, 40{\%} from carbohydrate) or high protein containing moderate amounts of carbohydrate (HPWL, 30{\%} of energy from protein, 40{\%} from carbohydrate). Faecal samples collected at the end of each diet period were profiled for dietary metabolites using LC–MS/MS.ResultsThis study shows that the NPWL diet only induced very minor changes in the faecal metabolome, whereas NPAAWL and HPWL diets decreased carbohydrate-related metabolites (butyrate, ferulic acid) and increased protein-related metabolites. Most faecal metabolites were correlated with dietary carbohydrate and not protein intake.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that dietary carbohydrate is the main driver of colonic fermentation in humans and that a balance between dietary carbohydrate and protein should be maintained when designing safe, effective and healthy weight loss diets.",
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author = "Gratz, {S W} and S Hazim and Richardson, {A J} and L Scobbie and Johnstone, {A M} and C Fyfe and G Holtrop and Lobley, {G E} and Russell, {W R}",
note = "This study was funded by the Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS) of the Scottish Government Open access via Springer Compact Agreement",
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T1 - Dietary carbohydrate rather than protein intake drives colonic microbial fermentation during weight loss

AU - Gratz, S W

AU - Hazim, S

AU - Richardson, A J

AU - Scobbie, L

AU - Johnstone, A M

AU - Fyfe, C

AU - Holtrop, G

AU - Lobley, G E

AU - Russell, W R

N1 - This study was funded by the Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS) of the Scottish Government Open access via Springer Compact Agreement

PY - 2019/4

Y1 - 2019/4

N2 - PurposeHigh protein weight loss diets are effective in aiding body weight management. However, high protein and low carbohydrate intakes can alter colonic fermentation profiles in humans and may impact on colonic health. This study aims to identify the most important dietary contributors to colonic fermentation during diet-controlled weight loss.MethodsOverweight or obese male volunteers (n = 18) consumed a body weight maintenance diet (fed at 1.5× basic metabolic rate, BMR) followed by three weight loss diets (fed at 1× BMR) for 10 days each in a cross-over design. Weight loss diets were designed as normal protein (NPWL, 15% of energy from protein, 55% from carbohydrate), normal protein enriched with free amino acids and moderate amounts of carbohydrate (NPAAWL, 15% of energy from protein, 15% from free AA, 40% from carbohydrate) or high protein containing moderate amounts of carbohydrate (HPWL, 30% of energy from protein, 40% from carbohydrate). Faecal samples collected at the end of each diet period were profiled for dietary metabolites using LC–MS/MS.ResultsThis study shows that the NPWL diet only induced very minor changes in the faecal metabolome, whereas NPAAWL and HPWL diets decreased carbohydrate-related metabolites (butyrate, ferulic acid) and increased protein-related metabolites. Most faecal metabolites were correlated with dietary carbohydrate and not protein intake.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that dietary carbohydrate is the main driver of colonic fermentation in humans and that a balance between dietary carbohydrate and protein should be maintained when designing safe, effective and healthy weight loss diets.

AB - PurposeHigh protein weight loss diets are effective in aiding body weight management. However, high protein and low carbohydrate intakes can alter colonic fermentation profiles in humans and may impact on colonic health. This study aims to identify the most important dietary contributors to colonic fermentation during diet-controlled weight loss.MethodsOverweight or obese male volunteers (n = 18) consumed a body weight maintenance diet (fed at 1.5× basic metabolic rate, BMR) followed by three weight loss diets (fed at 1× BMR) for 10 days each in a cross-over design. Weight loss diets were designed as normal protein (NPWL, 15% of energy from protein, 55% from carbohydrate), normal protein enriched with free amino acids and moderate amounts of carbohydrate (NPAAWL, 15% of energy from protein, 15% from free AA, 40% from carbohydrate) or high protein containing moderate amounts of carbohydrate (HPWL, 30% of energy from protein, 40% from carbohydrate). Faecal samples collected at the end of each diet period were profiled for dietary metabolites using LC–MS/MS.ResultsThis study shows that the NPWL diet only induced very minor changes in the faecal metabolome, whereas NPAAWL and HPWL diets decreased carbohydrate-related metabolites (butyrate, ferulic acid) and increased protein-related metabolites. Most faecal metabolites were correlated with dietary carbohydrate and not protein intake.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that dietary carbohydrate is the main driver of colonic fermentation in humans and that a balance between dietary carbohydrate and protein should be maintained when designing safe, effective and healthy weight loss diets.

KW - faecal metabolome

KW - ferulic acid

KW - butyrate

KW - fermentation

KW - amino acids

KW - dietary fibre

KW - Faecal metabolome

KW - Amino acids

KW - Dietary fibre

KW - Fermentation

KW - Butyrate

KW - Ferulic acid

KW - METABOLITES

KW - RED MEAT

KW - GUT

KW - BUTYRATE-PRODUCING BACTERIA

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U2 - 10.1007/s00394-018-1629-x

DO - 10.1007/s00394-018-1629-x

M3 - Article

VL - 58

SP - 1147

EP - 1158

JO - European Journal of Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Nutrition

SN - 1436-6207

IS - 3

ER -