Dietary iodine exposure and brain structures and cognition in older people: Exploratory analysis in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

Maria del C. Valdés Hernández, Janet Kyle, Julia Allan, Michael Allerhand, Heather Clark, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Natalie A. Royle, Alan J Gow, Alison Pattie, Janie Corley, Martin E. Bastin, John M Starr, Joanna M. Wardlaw, Ian J. Deary, Emilie Combet

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Abstract

Background: Iodine deficiency is one of the three key micronutrient deficiencies highlighted as major public health issues by the World Health Organisation. Iodine deficiency is known to cause brain structural alterations likely to affect cognition. However, it is not known whether or how different (lifelong) levels of exposure to dietary iodine influences brain health and cognitive functions.
Methods: From 1091 participants initially enrolled in The Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936, we obtained whole diet data from 882. Three years later, from 866 participants (mean age 72 yrs, SD ±0.8), we obtained cognitive information and ventricular, hippocampal and normal and abnormal tissue volumes from brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans (n=700). We studied the brain structure and cognitive abilities of iodine-rich food avoiders/low consumers versus those with a high intake in iodine-rich foods (namely dairy and fish).
Results: We identified individuals (n=189) with contrasting diets, i) belonging to the lowest quintiles for dairy and fish consumption, ii) milk avoiders, iii) belonging to the middle quintiles for dairy and fish consumption, and iv) belonging to the middle quintiles for dairy and fish consumption. Iodine intake was secured mostly though the diet (n=10 supplement users) and was sufficient for most (75.1%, median 193 µg/day). In individuals from these groups, brain lateral ventricular volume was positively associated with fat, energy and protein intake. The associations between iodine intake and brain ventricular volume and between consumption of fish products (including fish cakes and fish-containing pasties) and white matter hyperintensities (p=0.03) the latest being compounded by sodium, proteins and saturated fats, disappeared after type 1 error correction.
Conclusion: In this large Scottish older cohort, the proportion of individuals reporting extreme (low vs. high)/medium iodine consumption is small. In these individuals, low iodine-rich food intake was associated with increased brain volume shrinkage, raising an important hypothesis worth being explored for designing appropriate guidelines.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)971-979
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Volume21
Issue number9
Early online date21 Jul 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017

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Iodine
Cognition
Parturition
Brain
Fishes
Diet
Fats
Fish Products
Food
Aptitude
Micronutrients
Energy Intake
Milk
Proteins
Cohort Studies
Public Health
Eating
Sodium
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Guidelines

Keywords

  • diet
  • iodine
  • brain
  • cognition
  • MRI
  • ageing
  • white matter hyperintensities

Cite this

Dietary iodine exposure and brain structures and cognition in older people : Exploratory analysis in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. / Hernández, Maria del C. Valdés ; Kyle, Janet; Allan, Julia; Allerhand, Michael; Clark, Heather; Maniega, Susana Muñoz ; Royle, Natalie A.; Gow, Alan J; Pattie, Alison ; Corley, Janie; Bastin, Martin E.; Starr, John M; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.; Combet, Emilie .

In: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, Vol. 21, No. 9, 11.2017, p. 971-979.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hernández, MDCV, Kyle, J, Allan, J, Allerhand, M, Clark, H, Maniega, SM, Royle, NA, Gow, AJ, Pattie, A, Corley, J, Bastin, ME, Starr, JM, Wardlaw, JM, Deary, IJ & Combet, E 2017, 'Dietary iodine exposure and brain structures and cognition in older people: Exploratory analysis in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936', Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 971-979. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-017-0954-8
Hernández, Maria del C. Valdés ; Kyle, Janet ; Allan, Julia ; Allerhand, Michael ; Clark, Heather ; Maniega, Susana Muñoz ; Royle, Natalie A. ; Gow, Alan J ; Pattie, Alison ; Corley, Janie ; Bastin, Martin E. ; Starr, John M ; Wardlaw, Joanna M. ; Deary, Ian J. ; Combet, Emilie . / Dietary iodine exposure and brain structures and cognition in older people : Exploratory analysis in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. In: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. 2017 ; Vol. 21, No. 9. pp. 971-979.
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abstract = "Background: Iodine deficiency is one of the three key micronutrient deficiencies highlighted as major public health issues by the World Health Organisation. Iodine deficiency is known to cause brain structural alterations likely to affect cognition. However, it is not known whether or how different (lifelong) levels of exposure to dietary iodine influences brain health and cognitive functions. Methods: From 1091 participants initially enrolled in The Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936, we obtained whole diet data from 882. Three years later, from 866 participants (mean age 72 yrs, SD ±0.8), we obtained cognitive information and ventricular, hippocampal and normal and abnormal tissue volumes from brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans (n=700). We studied the brain structure and cognitive abilities of iodine-rich food avoiders/low consumers versus those with a high intake in iodine-rich foods (namely dairy and fish).Results: We identified individuals (n=189) with contrasting diets, i) belonging to the lowest quintiles for dairy and fish consumption, ii) milk avoiders, iii) belonging to the middle quintiles for dairy and fish consumption, and iv) belonging to the middle quintiles for dairy and fish consumption. Iodine intake was secured mostly though the diet (n=10 supplement users) and was sufficient for most (75.1{\%}, median 193 µg/day). In individuals from these groups, brain lateral ventricular volume was positively associated with fat, energy and protein intake. The associations between iodine intake and brain ventricular volume and between consumption of fish products (including fish cakes and fish-containing pasties) and white matter hyperintensities (p=0.03) the latest being compounded by sodium, proteins and saturated fats, disappeared after type 1 error correction.Conclusion: In this large Scottish older cohort, the proportion of individuals reporting extreme (low vs. high)/medium iodine consumption is small. In these individuals, low iodine-rich food intake was associated with increased brain volume shrinkage, raising an important hypothesis worth being explored for designing appropriate guidelines.",
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author = "Hern{\'a}ndez, {Maria del C. Vald{\'e}s} and Janet Kyle and Julia Allan and Michael Allerhand and Heather Clark and Maniega, {Susana Mu{\~n}oz} and Royle, {Natalie A.} and Gow, {Alan J} and Alison Pattie and Janie Corley and Bastin, {Martin E.} and Starr, {John M} and Wardlaw, {Joanna M.} and Deary, {Ian J.} and Emilie Combet",
note = "This study was funded by The Scottish Government under the Heriot-Watt University Theme Fund 2012-13 assigned to the Scottish Crucible initiative http://www.scottishcrucible.org.uk/about-crucible.html “Projects for Scotland”. The LBC1936 Study was funded by Age UK and the UK Medical Research Council (http://www.disconnectedmind.ed.ac.uk/) (including the Sidney De Haan Award for Vascular Dementia). Funds from the Centre of Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology (http://www.ccace.ed.ac.uk/) (MR/K026992/1), Row Fogo Charitable Trust (R35865), the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the Economic and Social Research Council are gratefully acknowledged. We thank the LBC1936 participants, Ross Henderson, Catherine Murray and Caroline Spratt for data collection and data entry, nurses at the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, radiographers and other staff at the Brain Research Imaging Centre (http://www.sbirc.ed.ac.uk/).",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary iodine exposure and brain structures and cognition in older people

T2 - Exploratory analysis in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

AU - Hernández, Maria del C. Valdés

AU - Kyle, Janet

AU - Allan, Julia

AU - Allerhand, Michael

AU - Clark, Heather

AU - Maniega, Susana Muñoz

AU - Royle, Natalie A.

AU - Gow, Alan J

AU - Pattie, Alison

AU - Corley, Janie

AU - Bastin, Martin E.

AU - Starr, John M

AU - Wardlaw, Joanna M.

AU - Deary, Ian J.

AU - Combet, Emilie

N1 - This study was funded by The Scottish Government under the Heriot-Watt University Theme Fund 2012-13 assigned to the Scottish Crucible initiative http://www.scottishcrucible.org.uk/about-crucible.html “Projects for Scotland”. The LBC1936 Study was funded by Age UK and the UK Medical Research Council (http://www.disconnectedmind.ed.ac.uk/) (including the Sidney De Haan Award for Vascular Dementia). Funds from the Centre of Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology (http://www.ccace.ed.ac.uk/) (MR/K026992/1), Row Fogo Charitable Trust (R35865), the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the Economic and Social Research Council are gratefully acknowledged. We thank the LBC1936 participants, Ross Henderson, Catherine Murray and Caroline Spratt for data collection and data entry, nurses at the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, radiographers and other staff at the Brain Research Imaging Centre (http://www.sbirc.ed.ac.uk/).

PY - 2017/11

Y1 - 2017/11

N2 - Background: Iodine deficiency is one of the three key micronutrient deficiencies highlighted as major public health issues by the World Health Organisation. Iodine deficiency is known to cause brain structural alterations likely to affect cognition. However, it is not known whether or how different (lifelong) levels of exposure to dietary iodine influences brain health and cognitive functions. Methods: From 1091 participants initially enrolled in The Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936, we obtained whole diet data from 882. Three years later, from 866 participants (mean age 72 yrs, SD ±0.8), we obtained cognitive information and ventricular, hippocampal and normal and abnormal tissue volumes from brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans (n=700). We studied the brain structure and cognitive abilities of iodine-rich food avoiders/low consumers versus those with a high intake in iodine-rich foods (namely dairy and fish).Results: We identified individuals (n=189) with contrasting diets, i) belonging to the lowest quintiles for dairy and fish consumption, ii) milk avoiders, iii) belonging to the middle quintiles for dairy and fish consumption, and iv) belonging to the middle quintiles for dairy and fish consumption. Iodine intake was secured mostly though the diet (n=10 supplement users) and was sufficient for most (75.1%, median 193 µg/day). In individuals from these groups, brain lateral ventricular volume was positively associated with fat, energy and protein intake. The associations between iodine intake and brain ventricular volume and between consumption of fish products (including fish cakes and fish-containing pasties) and white matter hyperintensities (p=0.03) the latest being compounded by sodium, proteins and saturated fats, disappeared after type 1 error correction.Conclusion: In this large Scottish older cohort, the proportion of individuals reporting extreme (low vs. high)/medium iodine consumption is small. In these individuals, low iodine-rich food intake was associated with increased brain volume shrinkage, raising an important hypothesis worth being explored for designing appropriate guidelines.

AB - Background: Iodine deficiency is one of the three key micronutrient deficiencies highlighted as major public health issues by the World Health Organisation. Iodine deficiency is known to cause brain structural alterations likely to affect cognition. However, it is not known whether or how different (lifelong) levels of exposure to dietary iodine influences brain health and cognitive functions. Methods: From 1091 participants initially enrolled in The Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936, we obtained whole diet data from 882. Three years later, from 866 participants (mean age 72 yrs, SD ±0.8), we obtained cognitive information and ventricular, hippocampal and normal and abnormal tissue volumes from brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans (n=700). We studied the brain structure and cognitive abilities of iodine-rich food avoiders/low consumers versus those with a high intake in iodine-rich foods (namely dairy and fish).Results: We identified individuals (n=189) with contrasting diets, i) belonging to the lowest quintiles for dairy and fish consumption, ii) milk avoiders, iii) belonging to the middle quintiles for dairy and fish consumption, and iv) belonging to the middle quintiles for dairy and fish consumption. Iodine intake was secured mostly though the diet (n=10 supplement users) and was sufficient for most (75.1%, median 193 µg/day). In individuals from these groups, brain lateral ventricular volume was positively associated with fat, energy and protein intake. The associations between iodine intake and brain ventricular volume and between consumption of fish products (including fish cakes and fish-containing pasties) and white matter hyperintensities (p=0.03) the latest being compounded by sodium, proteins and saturated fats, disappeared after type 1 error correction.Conclusion: In this large Scottish older cohort, the proportion of individuals reporting extreme (low vs. high)/medium iodine consumption is small. In these individuals, low iodine-rich food intake was associated with increased brain volume shrinkage, raising an important hypothesis worth being explored for designing appropriate guidelines.

KW - diet

KW - iodine

KW - brain

KW - cognition

KW - MRI

KW - ageing

KW - white matter hyperintensities

U2 - 10.1007/s12603-017-0954-8

DO - 10.1007/s12603-017-0954-8

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 971

EP - 979

JO - Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging

JF - Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging

SN - 1279-7707

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ER -