Background. Prostaglandins modulate cytokine release though increases in cAMP, regulating interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10. Diclofenac inhibits cyclo-oxygenase activity and hence prostaglandin production. We hypothesized that diclofenac would affect release of IL-6 and IL-10 and modulate the immune response.
Methods. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect of diclofenac in patients undergoing major urological surgery. Patients were randomized to receive either diclofenac (50 mg orally every 8 h the day before surgery and 75 mg i.m. every 12 h on the day of surgery, n=23) or placebo (n=23). Standardized combined general anaesthesia and epidural analgesia was administered. Serum IL-6, IL-10 and cortisol were measured before surgery and 30 min and 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after skin incision. Temperature, leucocyte count and C-reactive protein concentration were measured before surgery and after 24 h.
Results. IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations increased, reaching peak levels at 12 and 6 h respectively in both groups. At 12 h, the IL-6 concentration was significantly lower in patients receiving diclofenac than in those receiving placebo (P=0.003). In contrast, IL-10 concentration at 6 h was higher in diclofenac-treated patients (P=0.008), and this was associated with less pyrexia (P=0.03), a lower leucocyte count (P=0.0002) and a lower C-reactive protein concentration (P=0.0039). Serum cortisol concentration was similar in the two groups of patients until 24 h, when the concentration was lower in patients who received diclofenac (P=0.002). Cortisol concentration correlated with IL-6 concentration at 24 h.
Conclusions. Administration of diclofenac was associated with lower IL-6 and higher IL-10 concentrations, and lower leucocyte count, C-reactive protein concentration and temperature. Diclofenac may have an anti-inflammatory role in major surgery.
- polypeptides, cytokines
- enzymes, cyclo-oxygenase
- complications, inflammation
- polypeptides, interleukin
- ANTIINFLAMMATORY RESPONSE