As part of a broader effort to promote more sustainable or 'integrated' transport, the United Kingdom Labour government commissioned a series of multimodal studies designed to seek genuinely multimodal solutions to traffic congestion problems in England. Consultants undertaking the studies were instructed to presume against new roads unless all other options were clearly impractical. We build upon previous work to assess the extent to which the outcome of the multimodal study process is consistent with the government's original intentions, as specified in relevant policy documentation. Our findings are that, although the process led to substantial achievements in some areas, its main outcome has been the approval of a host of new road schemes and-apart from some potentially significant public transport investment in the West Midlands-very little else. Viewed in the context of other developments since Labour came to power in 1997, such an outcome, would appear to indicate the further disintegration of the party's much-vaunted 'integrated' transport policy.
- TRAVEL MODE CHOICE
- ECOLOGICAL NORM