Distinguishing wild boar and domestic pigs in prehistory: a review of approaches and recent results

Peter Rowley-Conwy, Umberto Albarella, Keith Dobney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

New methods permit archaeologists to distinguish between wild boar and domestic pigs with greater confidence than has been hitherto possible. Metrical methods are the most commonly used; these are reviewed. Assemblages containing a wider range of measurements (as measured by the coefficient of variation [V]) than is found in one population suggest that two populations of different-sized pigs were present, probably indicating separate wild and domestic populations with little or no interbreeding. These assemblages, sometimes taken to indicate animals ‘intermediate’ between wild and domestic, are clear evidence of full domestication. Other traditional means of diagnosing domestication based on age at death (the killing of many young animals) and biogeography (the export of the animal beyond its natural range, especially to islands) are particularly problematic when applied to pigs. New methods include the frequency of Linear Enamel Hypoplasia, which may increase due to domestication-induced stress, the study of diet through isotopes and dental microwear, and the examination of population histories through ancient and modern DNA and geometric morphometrics. These are all promising but should not be considered in isolation: many problems remain.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-44
Number of pages44
JournalJournal of World PreHistory
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2012

Fingerprint

prehistory
animal
social isolation
confidence
death
examination
Domestication
Prehistory
Animals
Domestic pig
history
evidence
Assemblages
Pig

Cite this

Distinguishing wild boar and domestic pigs in prehistory : a review of approaches and recent results. / Rowley-Conwy, Peter; Albarella, Umberto; Dobney, Keith.

In: Journal of World PreHistory, Vol. 25, No. 1, 23.03.2012, p. 1-44.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{8bb609a5f15b4f39b04c7ac1050037c7,
title = "Distinguishing wild boar and domestic pigs in prehistory: a review of approaches and recent results",
abstract = "New methods permit archaeologists to distinguish between wild boar and domestic pigs with greater confidence than has been hitherto possible. Metrical methods are the most commonly used; these are reviewed. Assemblages containing a wider range of measurements (as measured by the coefficient of variation [V]) than is found in one population suggest that two populations of different-sized pigs were present, probably indicating separate wild and domestic populations with little or no interbreeding. These assemblages, sometimes taken to indicate animals ‘intermediate’ between wild and domestic, are clear evidence of full domestication. Other traditional means of diagnosing domestication based on age at death (the killing of many young animals) and biogeography (the export of the animal beyond its natural range, especially to islands) are particularly problematic when applied to pigs. New methods include the frequency of Linear Enamel Hypoplasia, which may increase due to domestication-induced stress, the study of diet through isotopes and dental microwear, and the examination of population histories through ancient and modern DNA and geometric morphometrics. These are all promising but should not be considered in isolation: many problems remain.",
author = "Peter Rowley-Conwy and Umberto Albarella and Keith Dobney",
year = "2012",
month = "3",
day = "23",
doi = "10.1007/s10963-012-9055-0",
language = "English",
volume = "25",
pages = "1--44",
journal = "Journal of World PreHistory",
issn = "0892-7537",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Distinguishing wild boar and domestic pigs in prehistory

T2 - a review of approaches and recent results

AU - Rowley-Conwy, Peter

AU - Albarella, Umberto

AU - Dobney, Keith

PY - 2012/3/23

Y1 - 2012/3/23

N2 - New methods permit archaeologists to distinguish between wild boar and domestic pigs with greater confidence than has been hitherto possible. Metrical methods are the most commonly used; these are reviewed. Assemblages containing a wider range of measurements (as measured by the coefficient of variation [V]) than is found in one population suggest that two populations of different-sized pigs were present, probably indicating separate wild and domestic populations with little or no interbreeding. These assemblages, sometimes taken to indicate animals ‘intermediate’ between wild and domestic, are clear evidence of full domestication. Other traditional means of diagnosing domestication based on age at death (the killing of many young animals) and biogeography (the export of the animal beyond its natural range, especially to islands) are particularly problematic when applied to pigs. New methods include the frequency of Linear Enamel Hypoplasia, which may increase due to domestication-induced stress, the study of diet through isotopes and dental microwear, and the examination of population histories through ancient and modern DNA and geometric morphometrics. These are all promising but should not be considered in isolation: many problems remain.

AB - New methods permit archaeologists to distinguish between wild boar and domestic pigs with greater confidence than has been hitherto possible. Metrical methods are the most commonly used; these are reviewed. Assemblages containing a wider range of measurements (as measured by the coefficient of variation [V]) than is found in one population suggest that two populations of different-sized pigs were present, probably indicating separate wild and domestic populations with little or no interbreeding. These assemblages, sometimes taken to indicate animals ‘intermediate’ between wild and domestic, are clear evidence of full domestication. Other traditional means of diagnosing domestication based on age at death (the killing of many young animals) and biogeography (the export of the animal beyond its natural range, especially to islands) are particularly problematic when applied to pigs. New methods include the frequency of Linear Enamel Hypoplasia, which may increase due to domestication-induced stress, the study of diet through isotopes and dental microwear, and the examination of population histories through ancient and modern DNA and geometric morphometrics. These are all promising but should not be considered in isolation: many problems remain.

U2 - 10.1007/s10963-012-9055-0

DO - 10.1007/s10963-012-9055-0

M3 - Article

VL - 25

SP - 1

EP - 44

JO - Journal of World PreHistory

JF - Journal of World PreHistory

SN - 0892-7537

IS - 1

ER -