Distribution of discontinuous mudstone beds within wave-dominated shallow-marine deposits

Star Point Sandstone and Blackhawk Formation, Eastern Utah

Christian Haug Eide*, John Howell, Simon Buckley

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Deposits of wave-dominated shorelines are typically considered to act as relatively simple hydrocarbon reservoirs and are commonly modeled as "tanks of sand." However, important heterogeneities that can act as barriers to fluid flow occur at the parasequence, bedset, and bed scales, especially in viscous oil or low-permeability oil fields. Heterogeneities at the parasequence and bedset scales have been well studied, but discontinuous mudstone beds occurring within the shoreface have received little attention. The Book Cliffs and Wasatch Plateau are among the best-exposed and best-studied deposits of wave-dominated shallow-marine systems in the world. Two parasequences within these outcrops have been studied in detail to investigate the distributions of intrashoreface shales and to propose models for the controls on their distribution. A data set consisting of 30 km (18.6 mi) of virtual outcrops derived from oblique helicoptermounted light detection and ranging (LIDAR) scanning with supporting stratigraphic sections makes it possible to collect a large quantity of accurate geometric data of depositional elements from inaccessible cliffs.

Nine-hundred and twenty-one discontinuous mudstone beds were measured. These occur as ellipses with long axes oriented normal to the paleoshoreline. Lengths and widths of these mudstone beds exhibit a lognormal distribution, with means of 21.9 and 13.8 m (71.9 and 45.3 ft), respectively. Within the shoreface succession, the number of mudstone beds increases downward whereas size does not vary significantly with stratigraphic height. An average of 100 m (328 ft) cumulative length of shale exists per 100 m (328 ft) of horizontal outcrop; this increases threefold near both wave-dominated deltas and bedset boundaries that reflect minor sea-level fluctuations during progradation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1401-1429
Number of pages29
JournalAAPG Bulletin
Volume98
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2014

Keywords

  • SHOREFACE-SHELF PARASEQUENCES
  • BOOK-CLIFFS
  • WASATCH PLATEAU
  • STRATIGRAPHIC ARCHITECTURE
  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY
  • FACIES ARCHITECTURE
  • KENILWORTH MEMBER
  • WESTERN INTERIOR
  • SUNNYSIDE MEMBER
  • USA

Cite this

Distribution of discontinuous mudstone beds within wave-dominated shallow-marine deposits : Star Point Sandstone and Blackhawk Formation, Eastern Utah. / Eide, Christian Haug; Howell, John; Buckley, Simon.

In: AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 98, No. 7, 07.2014, p. 1401-1429.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Distribution of discontinuous mudstone beds within wave-dominated shallow-marine deposits: Star Point Sandstone and Blackhawk Formation, Eastern Utah",
abstract = "Deposits of wave-dominated shorelines are typically considered to act as relatively simple hydrocarbon reservoirs and are commonly modeled as {"}tanks of sand.{"} However, important heterogeneities that can act as barriers to fluid flow occur at the parasequence, bedset, and bed scales, especially in viscous oil or low-permeability oil fields. Heterogeneities at the parasequence and bedset scales have been well studied, but discontinuous mudstone beds occurring within the shoreface have received little attention. The Book Cliffs and Wasatch Plateau are among the best-exposed and best-studied deposits of wave-dominated shallow-marine systems in the world. Two parasequences within these outcrops have been studied in detail to investigate the distributions of intrashoreface shales and to propose models for the controls on their distribution. A data set consisting of 30 km (18.6 mi) of virtual outcrops derived from oblique helicoptermounted light detection and ranging (LIDAR) scanning with supporting stratigraphic sections makes it possible to collect a large quantity of accurate geometric data of depositional elements from inaccessible cliffs.Nine-hundred and twenty-one discontinuous mudstone beds were measured. These occur as ellipses with long axes oriented normal to the paleoshoreline. Lengths and widths of these mudstone beds exhibit a lognormal distribution, with means of 21.9 and 13.8 m (71.9 and 45.3 ft), respectively. Within the shoreface succession, the number of mudstone beds increases downward whereas size does not vary significantly with stratigraphic height. An average of 100 m (328 ft) cumulative length of shale exists per 100 m (328 ft) of horizontal outcrop; this increases threefold near both wave-dominated deltas and bedset boundaries that reflect minor sea-level fluctuations during progradation.",
keywords = "SHOREFACE-SHELF PARASEQUENCES, BOOK-CLIFFS, WASATCH PLATEAU, STRATIGRAPHIC ARCHITECTURE, SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY, FACIES ARCHITECTURE, KENILWORTH MEMBER, WESTERN INTERIOR, SUNNYSIDE MEMBER, USA",
author = "Eide, {Christian Haug} and John Howell and Simon Buckley",
note = "Acknowledgements Funding for this study was provided from the Research Council of Norway through the Petromaks project 193059 and the FORCE Safari Project. The lidar data was collected by Julien Vallet and Samuel Pitiot of Helimap Systems SA. Riegl LMS GmbH is acknowledged for software support. The first author would like to thank Oliver Severin Tynes for assistance in the field. Tore Grane Klausen and Gijs Allard Henstra are thanked for invaluable discussions. The authors would also like to thank Janok Bhattacharya, Cornel Olariu and one anonymous revier for their insightful comments which improved this paper, and Frances Witehurst for his editorial comments.",
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T1 - Distribution of discontinuous mudstone beds within wave-dominated shallow-marine deposits

T2 - Star Point Sandstone and Blackhawk Formation, Eastern Utah

AU - Eide, Christian Haug

AU - Howell, John

AU - Buckley, Simon

N1 - Acknowledgements Funding for this study was provided from the Research Council of Norway through the Petromaks project 193059 and the FORCE Safari Project. The lidar data was collected by Julien Vallet and Samuel Pitiot of Helimap Systems SA. Riegl LMS GmbH is acknowledged for software support. The first author would like to thank Oliver Severin Tynes for assistance in the field. Tore Grane Klausen and Gijs Allard Henstra are thanked for invaluable discussions. The authors would also like to thank Janok Bhattacharya, Cornel Olariu and one anonymous revier for their insightful comments which improved this paper, and Frances Witehurst for his editorial comments.

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N2 - Deposits of wave-dominated shorelines are typically considered to act as relatively simple hydrocarbon reservoirs and are commonly modeled as "tanks of sand." However, important heterogeneities that can act as barriers to fluid flow occur at the parasequence, bedset, and bed scales, especially in viscous oil or low-permeability oil fields. Heterogeneities at the parasequence and bedset scales have been well studied, but discontinuous mudstone beds occurring within the shoreface have received little attention. The Book Cliffs and Wasatch Plateau are among the best-exposed and best-studied deposits of wave-dominated shallow-marine systems in the world. Two parasequences within these outcrops have been studied in detail to investigate the distributions of intrashoreface shales and to propose models for the controls on their distribution. A data set consisting of 30 km (18.6 mi) of virtual outcrops derived from oblique helicoptermounted light detection and ranging (LIDAR) scanning with supporting stratigraphic sections makes it possible to collect a large quantity of accurate geometric data of depositional elements from inaccessible cliffs.Nine-hundred and twenty-one discontinuous mudstone beds were measured. These occur as ellipses with long axes oriented normal to the paleoshoreline. Lengths and widths of these mudstone beds exhibit a lognormal distribution, with means of 21.9 and 13.8 m (71.9 and 45.3 ft), respectively. Within the shoreface succession, the number of mudstone beds increases downward whereas size does not vary significantly with stratigraphic height. An average of 100 m (328 ft) cumulative length of shale exists per 100 m (328 ft) of horizontal outcrop; this increases threefold near both wave-dominated deltas and bedset boundaries that reflect minor sea-level fluctuations during progradation.

AB - Deposits of wave-dominated shorelines are typically considered to act as relatively simple hydrocarbon reservoirs and are commonly modeled as "tanks of sand." However, important heterogeneities that can act as barriers to fluid flow occur at the parasequence, bedset, and bed scales, especially in viscous oil or low-permeability oil fields. Heterogeneities at the parasequence and bedset scales have been well studied, but discontinuous mudstone beds occurring within the shoreface have received little attention. The Book Cliffs and Wasatch Plateau are among the best-exposed and best-studied deposits of wave-dominated shallow-marine systems in the world. Two parasequences within these outcrops have been studied in detail to investigate the distributions of intrashoreface shales and to propose models for the controls on their distribution. A data set consisting of 30 km (18.6 mi) of virtual outcrops derived from oblique helicoptermounted light detection and ranging (LIDAR) scanning with supporting stratigraphic sections makes it possible to collect a large quantity of accurate geometric data of depositional elements from inaccessible cliffs.Nine-hundred and twenty-one discontinuous mudstone beds were measured. These occur as ellipses with long axes oriented normal to the paleoshoreline. Lengths and widths of these mudstone beds exhibit a lognormal distribution, with means of 21.9 and 13.8 m (71.9 and 45.3 ft), respectively. Within the shoreface succession, the number of mudstone beds increases downward whereas size does not vary significantly with stratigraphic height. An average of 100 m (328 ft) cumulative length of shale exists per 100 m (328 ft) of horizontal outcrop; this increases threefold near both wave-dominated deltas and bedset boundaries that reflect minor sea-level fluctuations during progradation.

KW - SHOREFACE-SHELF PARASEQUENCES

KW - BOOK-CLIFFS

KW - WASATCH PLATEAU

KW - STRATIGRAPHIC ARCHITECTURE

KW - SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY

KW - FACIES ARCHITECTURE

KW - KENILWORTH MEMBER

KW - WESTERN INTERIOR

KW - SUNNYSIDE MEMBER

KW - USA

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DO - 10.1306/01201413106

M3 - Article

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SP - 1401

EP - 1429

JO - AAPG Bulletin

JF - AAPG Bulletin

SN - 0149-1423

IS - 7

ER -