The metabolic profile of Streptomyces sp. strain C34, isolated from the Chilean hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil, is dependent on the culture media used for its growth. The application of an OSMAC approach on this strain using a range of cultivation media resulted in the isolation and identification of three new compounds from the rare class of 22-membered macrolactone polyketides, named chaxalactins A-C (1-3). In addition, the known compounds deferroxamine E (4), hygromycin A (5), and 5 ''-dihydro-hygromycin A (6) were detected. The isolated compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and accurate mass spectrometric analysis. Compounds 1-3 displayed strong activity against Gram-positive but weak activity Gram-negative strains tested.