Diversification of acorn worms (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) revealed in the deep sea

Karen J. Osborn, Linda A. Kuhnz, Imants G. Priede, Makoto Urata, Andrey V. Gebruk, Nicholas D. Holland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Enteropneusts (phylum Hemichordata), although studied extensively because of their close relationship to chordates, have long been considered shallow-water, burrowing animals. The present paper more than doubles the number of enteropneust species recorded in the deep sea based on high-resolution imaging and sampling with remotely operated vehicles. We provide direct evidence that some enteropneusts are highly mobile—using changes in posture and currents to drift between feeding sites—and are prominent members of deep, epibenthic communities. In addition, we provide ecological information for each species. We also show that despite their great morphological diversity, most deep-living enteropneusts form a single clade (the rediagnosed family Torquaratoridae) on the basis of rDNA sequences and morphology of the proboscis skeleton and stomochord. The phylogenetic position of the torquaratorids indicates that the group, after evolving from near-shore ancestors, radiated extensively in the deep sea
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1646-1654
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences
Volume279
Issue number1733
Early online date16 Nov 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Apr 2012

Fingerprint

Remotely operated vehicles
Chordata
proboscis
burrowing
posture
Ribosomal DNA
Oceans and Seas
skeleton
deep sea
ancestry
Animals
drift feeding
image analysis
Sampling
seed
Imaging techniques
nucleotide sequences
fruits
remotely operated vehicle
Water

Keywords

  • deep sea
  • epibenthic
  • demersal
  • Enteropneusta
  • Hemichordata
  • Torquaratoridae

Cite this

Diversification of acorn worms (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) revealed in the deep sea. / Osborn, Karen J.; Kuhnz, Linda A. ; Priede, Imants G.; Urata, Makoto; Gebruk, Andrey V.; Holland, Nicholas D.

In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences, Vol. 279, No. 1733, 22.04.2012, p. 1646-1654.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Osborn, Karen J. ; Kuhnz, Linda A. ; Priede, Imants G. ; Urata, Makoto ; Gebruk, Andrey V. ; Holland, Nicholas D. / Diversification of acorn worms (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) revealed in the deep sea. In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences. 2012 ; Vol. 279, No. 1733. pp. 1646-1654.
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