The distribution of Armillaria species was investigated in Serbian forest ecosystems, in relation to the main host species attacked, forest-types, geography and altitude. In total, 388 isolates were identified from 36 host species in 47 sites. Armillaria gallica was the most commonly observed species with the widest distribution and with an altitudinal range of 70-1450 m, it was the dominating Armillaria species in lowland alluvial forests and in Quercus and Fagus forests at higher elevations. Armillaria mellea occurred in Quercus spp. - dominated forests in the north and central regions at 70-1050 m. Sixty-eight per cent of the A. mellea isolates were collected from living hosts, most commonly in declining conifer plantations. Armillaria ostoyae was distributed in the cooler coniferous forest types and plantations in the Dinaric Alps in the south of Serbia, at 850-1820 m. Armillaria cepistipes was found in the eastern and southern hilly and mountainous regions of the country, at 600-1900 m. Most isolates were obtained from conifers and rhizomorphs in the soil around decaying stumps. Armillaria tabescens was found only on dead oak material in the northern and eastern regions of the country at altitudes lower than 600 m.
- site relationships