Effect of an acute fast on energy compensation and feeding behaviour in lean men and women

A M Johnstone, P Faber, E R Gibney, M Elia, G Horgan, B E Golden, R J Stubbs

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    30 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    AIM: Humans appear to defend against energy deficit to a greater extent than energy surplus. Severe dietary energy restriction resulting in 5 - 30% weight loss often leads to hyperphagia and weight regain in lean subjects. However, the period of time over which fasting is often endured in Western society are far shorter, similar to1 - 2 days. This study examined how a 36 h fast effected the subsequent day's energy and nutrient intake in a group of 24 healthy, lean men and women.

    METHOD: Subjects underwent two 2 day treatments, termed 'fast' and 'maintenance'. During the 'fast' treatment, subjects were fed a maintenance diet on the day prior to the fast (day -1) to prevent overeating. They then consumed non-energy drinks only, from 20:00 h on day - 1 to 08:00 h on day 2 (ad libitum feeding day), thus fasting for 36 h. On the 'maintenance' protocol, subjects received a maintenance diet throughout day 1. Throughout day 2 they had ad libitum access to a range of familiar foods, which were the same for both treatments. Body weight, blood glucose and respiratory quotient were used as compliance checks. Hunger was monitored on day's - 1, 1 and 2 for the fast treatment only.

    RESULTS: On day 2, average energy intake was 10.2 vs 12.2 MJ/day (s.e.d. 1.0) on the post-maintenance and post-fast periods, respectively (P = 0.049). Subjects altered feeding behaviour, in response to the fast, only at breakfast time, selecting a higher-fat meal (P < 0.005). Compared to day - 1, motivation to eat was elevated during the fast (P < 0.05). This continued until breakfast was consumed during the re-feeding period (day 2), when values then returned to baseline.

    CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a 36 h fast, which generated a negative energy balance of - 12 M), did not induce a powerful, unconditioned stimulus to compensate on the subsequent day.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1623-1628
    Number of pages6
    JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
    Volume26
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2002

    Keywords

    • fasting
    • hunger
    • appetite
    • feeding behaviour
    • macronutrient selection
    • SHORT-TERM STARVATION
    • FAT
    • CARBOHYDRATE
    • EXPENDITURE
    • RESPONSES
    • SATIETY
    • ADULTS
    • HUMANS
    • FOODS

    Cite this

    Effect of an acute fast on energy compensation and feeding behaviour in lean men and women. / Johnstone, A M ; Faber, P ; Gibney, E R ; Elia, M ; Horgan, G ; Golden, B E ; Stubbs, R J .

    In: International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 26, 2002, p. 1623-1628.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Johnstone, A M ; Faber, P ; Gibney, E R ; Elia, M ; Horgan, G ; Golden, B E ; Stubbs, R J . / Effect of an acute fast on energy compensation and feeding behaviour in lean men and women. In: International Journal of Obesity. 2002 ; Vol. 26. pp. 1623-1628.
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    abstract = "AIM: Humans appear to defend against energy deficit to a greater extent than energy surplus. Severe dietary energy restriction resulting in 5 - 30{\%} weight loss often leads to hyperphagia and weight regain in lean subjects. However, the period of time over which fasting is often endured in Western society are far shorter, similar to1 - 2 days. This study examined how a 36 h fast effected the subsequent day's energy and nutrient intake in a group of 24 healthy, lean men and women.METHOD: Subjects underwent two 2 day treatments, termed 'fast' and 'maintenance'. During the 'fast' treatment, subjects were fed a maintenance diet on the day prior to the fast (day -1) to prevent overeating. They then consumed non-energy drinks only, from 20:00 h on day - 1 to 08:00 h on day 2 (ad libitum feeding day), thus fasting for 36 h. On the 'maintenance' protocol, subjects received a maintenance diet throughout day 1. Throughout day 2 they had ad libitum access to a range of familiar foods, which were the same for both treatments. Body weight, blood glucose and respiratory quotient were used as compliance checks. Hunger was monitored on day's - 1, 1 and 2 for the fast treatment only.RESULTS: On day 2, average energy intake was 10.2 vs 12.2 MJ/day (s.e.d. 1.0) on the post-maintenance and post-fast periods, respectively (P = 0.049). Subjects altered feeding behaviour, in response to the fast, only at breakfast time, selecting a higher-fat meal (P < 0.005). Compared to day - 1, motivation to eat was elevated during the fast (P < 0.05). This continued until breakfast was consumed during the re-feeding period (day 2), when values then returned to baseline.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a 36 h fast, which generated a negative energy balance of - 12 M), did not induce a powerful, unconditioned stimulus to compensate on the subsequent day.",
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    author = "Johnstone, {A M} and P Faber and Gibney, {E R} and M Elia and G Horgan and Golden, {B E} and Stubbs, {R J}",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Effect of an acute fast on energy compensation and feeding behaviour in lean men and women

    AU - Johnstone, A M

    AU - Faber, P

    AU - Gibney, E R

    AU - Elia, M

    AU - Horgan, G

    AU - Golden, B E

    AU - Stubbs, R J

    PY - 2002

    Y1 - 2002

    N2 - AIM: Humans appear to defend against energy deficit to a greater extent than energy surplus. Severe dietary energy restriction resulting in 5 - 30% weight loss often leads to hyperphagia and weight regain in lean subjects. However, the period of time over which fasting is often endured in Western society are far shorter, similar to1 - 2 days. This study examined how a 36 h fast effected the subsequent day's energy and nutrient intake in a group of 24 healthy, lean men and women.METHOD: Subjects underwent two 2 day treatments, termed 'fast' and 'maintenance'. During the 'fast' treatment, subjects were fed a maintenance diet on the day prior to the fast (day -1) to prevent overeating. They then consumed non-energy drinks only, from 20:00 h on day - 1 to 08:00 h on day 2 (ad libitum feeding day), thus fasting for 36 h. On the 'maintenance' protocol, subjects received a maintenance diet throughout day 1. Throughout day 2 they had ad libitum access to a range of familiar foods, which were the same for both treatments. Body weight, blood glucose and respiratory quotient were used as compliance checks. Hunger was monitored on day's - 1, 1 and 2 for the fast treatment only.RESULTS: On day 2, average energy intake was 10.2 vs 12.2 MJ/day (s.e.d. 1.0) on the post-maintenance and post-fast periods, respectively (P = 0.049). Subjects altered feeding behaviour, in response to the fast, only at breakfast time, selecting a higher-fat meal (P < 0.005). Compared to day - 1, motivation to eat was elevated during the fast (P < 0.05). This continued until breakfast was consumed during the re-feeding period (day 2), when values then returned to baseline.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a 36 h fast, which generated a negative energy balance of - 12 M), did not induce a powerful, unconditioned stimulus to compensate on the subsequent day.

    AB - AIM: Humans appear to defend against energy deficit to a greater extent than energy surplus. Severe dietary energy restriction resulting in 5 - 30% weight loss often leads to hyperphagia and weight regain in lean subjects. However, the period of time over which fasting is often endured in Western society are far shorter, similar to1 - 2 days. This study examined how a 36 h fast effected the subsequent day's energy and nutrient intake in a group of 24 healthy, lean men and women.METHOD: Subjects underwent two 2 day treatments, termed 'fast' and 'maintenance'. During the 'fast' treatment, subjects were fed a maintenance diet on the day prior to the fast (day -1) to prevent overeating. They then consumed non-energy drinks only, from 20:00 h on day - 1 to 08:00 h on day 2 (ad libitum feeding day), thus fasting for 36 h. On the 'maintenance' protocol, subjects received a maintenance diet throughout day 1. Throughout day 2 they had ad libitum access to a range of familiar foods, which were the same for both treatments. Body weight, blood glucose and respiratory quotient were used as compliance checks. Hunger was monitored on day's - 1, 1 and 2 for the fast treatment only.RESULTS: On day 2, average energy intake was 10.2 vs 12.2 MJ/day (s.e.d. 1.0) on the post-maintenance and post-fast periods, respectively (P = 0.049). Subjects altered feeding behaviour, in response to the fast, only at breakfast time, selecting a higher-fat meal (P < 0.005). Compared to day - 1, motivation to eat was elevated during the fast (P < 0.05). This continued until breakfast was consumed during the re-feeding period (day 2), when values then returned to baseline.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a 36 h fast, which generated a negative energy balance of - 12 M), did not induce a powerful, unconditioned stimulus to compensate on the subsequent day.

    KW - fasting

    KW - hunger

    KW - appetite

    KW - feeding behaviour

    KW - macronutrient selection

    KW - SHORT-TERM STARVATION

    KW - FAT

    KW - CARBOHYDRATE

    KW - EXPENDITURE

    KW - RESPONSES

    KW - SATIETY

    KW - ADULTS

    KW - HUMANS

    KW - FOODS

    U2 - 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802151

    DO - 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802151

    M3 - Article

    VL - 26

    SP - 1623

    EP - 1628

    JO - International Journal of Obesity

    JF - International Journal of Obesity

    SN - 0307-0565

    ER -