We have previously shown that intraarticular treatment with a hyaluronan (HA) preparation (840 kDa), HA84, up-regulates heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) expression and suppresses degeneration of synovial cells in an arthritis model. In that study, the RA84 administered was degraded into HA oligosaccharides in the synovial tissue, suggesting that HA84 or degradation products of RA may up-regulate Hsp72 expression. Thus, in the present study, we examined the effects of HA of various molecular sizes on Hsp72 expression and cell death in stressed cells. Western blotting analysis showed that treatment of K562 cells with HA tetrasaccharides up-regulated Hsp72 expression after exposure to hyperthermia. On the other hand, treatment of the cells with HA of other sizes (di-, hexa-, deca-, dodecasaccharides), HA84, or tetrasaccharides of keratan sulfate did not elicit any change in expression of the Hsp72 protein. Treatment of the cells with tetrasaccharides of HA up-regulated not only expression of the Hsp72 protein but also Hsp72 mRNA expression and enhanced activation of HSF1, a transcription factor controlling Hsp72 expression, after exposure to hyperthermia. Because the level of Hsp72 protein was not affected by tetrasaccharides of RA when the K562 cells were kept at 37 degreesC without any stress, it is evident that tetrasaccharides of HA did not act as a stress factor. In addition, tetrasaccharides of HA suppressed cell death in the case of K562 cells exposed to hyperthermia and of PC12 cells under serum deprivation. These results suggest that a certain size of oligosaccharides, i.e. the tetrasaccharides of HA, up-regulates Hsp72 expression by enhancing the activation of HSF1 under stress conditions and suppresses cell death.
- HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE
- STRESS-INDUCED APOPTOSIS