Effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level for ‘aflatoxin total’ from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs

Helle Katrine Knutsen, Jan Alexander, Lars Barregård, Margherita Bignami, Beat Brüschweiler, Sandra Ceccatelli, Bruce Cottrill, Michael Dinovi, Lutz Edler, Bettina Grasl-Kraupp, Christer Hogstrand, Laurentius (Ron) Hoogenboom, Carlo Stefano Nebbia, Isabelle P. Oswald, Martin Rose, Alain-Claude Roudot, Tanja Schwerdtle, Christiane Vleminckx, Günter Vollmer, Heather Wallace & 7 others Peter Fürst, Katleen Baert, José Cortiñas Abrahantes, Bruno Dujardin, Krizia Ferrini, Annette Petersen, EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

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Abstract

EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion regarding the effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level (ML) for ‘aflatoxin total’ (AFT; sum of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2) from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof. Aflatoxins are genotoxic and cause hepatocellular carcinomas in humans. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) evaluated 8,085 samples of peanuts and 472 samples of peanut butter, with > 60% left‐censored. The mean concentration of AFT in peanuts was 2.65/3.56 μg/kg (lower bound (LB)/upper bound (UB)) with a maximum of 1,429 μg/kg. The mean concentration in peanut butter was 1.47/1.92 μg/kg (LB/UB) with a maximum of 407 μg/kg. Peanut oil was not included since all data were left‐censored and the ML does not apply for oil. Exposure was calculated for a ‘Current ML’ and ‘Increased ML’ scenario, and mean chronic exposure estimates for consumers only, amounted to 0.04–2.74 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day and 0.07–4.28 ng/kg bw per day, respectively. The highest exposures were calculated for adolescents and other children. The CONTAM Panel used the cancer potencies estimated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for the risk characterisation. Under the scenario of the current ML, the cancer risk was estimated to range between 0.001 and 0.213 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Under the scenario of the increased ML, it ranged between 0.001 and 0.333 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Comparing these data calculated under the current ML scenario with the yearly excess cancer risk of 0.014 shows a higher risk for consumers of peanuts and peanut butter in some surveys. The calculated cancer risks indicate that an increase of the ML would further increase the risk by a factor of 1.6–1.8.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere05175
Number of pages32
JournalEFSA Journal
Volume16
Issue number2
Early online date8 Feb 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018

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Aflatoxins
Public Health
Butter
Neoplasms
Body Weight
Food Additives
Aflatoxin B1
Food Chain
Arachis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Oils
Joints

Keywords

  • aflatoxin
  • peanuts
  • occurence
  • exposure
  • maximum level (ML)
  • public health

Cite this

Effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level for ‘aflatoxin total’ from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs. / Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Cottrill, Bruce; Dinovi, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather; Fürst, Peter; Baert, Katleen; Abrahantes, José Cortiñas; Dujardin, Bruno; Ferrini, Krizia; Petersen, Annette ; EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM).

In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, e05175, 02.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Knutsen, HK, Alexander, J, Barregård, L, Bignami, M, Brüschweiler, B, Ceccatelli, S, Cottrill, B, Dinovi, M, Edler, L, Grasl-Kraupp, B, Hogstrand, C, Hoogenboom, LR, Nebbia, CS, Oswald, IP, Rose, M, Roudot, A-C, Schwerdtle, T, Vleminckx, C, Vollmer, G, Wallace, H, Fürst, P, Baert, K, Abrahantes, JC, Dujardin, B, Ferrini, K, Petersen, A & EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) 2018, 'Effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level for ‘aflatoxin total’ from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs', EFSA Journal, vol. 16, no. 2, e05175. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5175
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Fürst, Peter ; Baert, Katleen ; Abrahantes, José Cortiñas ; Dujardin, Bruno ; Ferrini, Krizia ; Petersen, Annette ; EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). / Effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level for ‘aflatoxin total’ from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs. In: EFSA Journal. 2018 ; Vol. 16, No. 2.
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abstract = "EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion regarding the effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level (ML) for ‘aflatoxin total’ (AFT; sum of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2) from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof. Aflatoxins are genotoxic and cause hepatocellular carcinomas in humans. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) evaluated 8,085 samples of peanuts and 472 samples of peanut butter, with > 60{\%} left‐censored. The mean concentration of AFT in peanuts was 2.65/3.56 μg/kg (lower bound (LB)/upper bound (UB)) with a maximum of 1,429 μg/kg. The mean concentration in peanut butter was 1.47/1.92 μg/kg (LB/UB) with a maximum of 407 μg/kg. Peanut oil was not included since all data were left‐censored and the ML does not apply for oil. Exposure was calculated for a ‘Current ML’ and ‘Increased ML’ scenario, and mean chronic exposure estimates for consumers only, amounted to 0.04–2.74 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day and 0.07–4.28 ng/kg bw per day, respectively. The highest exposures were calculated for adolescents and other children. The CONTAM Panel used the cancer potencies estimated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for the risk characterisation. Under the scenario of the current ML, the cancer risk was estimated to range between 0.001 and 0.213 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Under the scenario of the increased ML, it ranged between 0.001 and 0.333 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Comparing these data calculated under the current ML scenario with the yearly excess cancer risk of 0.014 shows a higher risk for consumers of peanuts and peanut butter in some surveys. The calculated cancer risks indicate that an increase of the ML would further increase the risk by a factor of 1.6–1.8.",
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author = "Knutsen, {Helle Katrine} and Jan Alexander and Lars Barreg{\aa}rd and Margherita Bignami and Beat Br{\"u}schweiler and Sandra Ceccatelli and Bruce Cottrill and Michael Dinovi and Lutz Edler and Bettina Grasl-Kraupp and Christer Hogstrand and Hoogenboom, {Laurentius (Ron)} and Nebbia, {Carlo Stefano} and Oswald, {Isabelle P.} and Martin Rose and Alain-Claude Roudot and Tanja Schwerdtle and Christiane Vleminckx and G{\"u}nter Vollmer and Heather Wallace and Peter F{\"u}rst and Katleen Baert and Abrahantes, {Jos{\'e} Corti{\~n}as} and Bruno Dujardin and Krizia Ferrini and Annette Petersen and {EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)}",
note = "The Panel wishes to thank the EFSA staff members: Davide Arcella and Valentina Bocca for the support provided to this scientific output. The CONTAM Panel acknowledges all European competent institutions and other stakeholders that provided occurrence data on aflatoxins in peanut, peanut butter and peanut oil, and supported the data collection for the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. Adopted: 23 January 2018",
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T1 - Effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level for ‘aflatoxin total’ from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs

AU - Knutsen, Helle Katrine

AU - Alexander, Jan

AU - Barregård, Lars

AU - Bignami, Margherita

AU - Brüschweiler, Beat

AU - Ceccatelli, Sandra

AU - Cottrill, Bruce

AU - Dinovi, Michael

AU - Edler, Lutz

AU - Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina

AU - Hogstrand, Christer

AU - Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron)

AU - Nebbia, Carlo Stefano

AU - Oswald, Isabelle P.

AU - Rose, Martin

AU - Roudot, Alain-Claude

AU - Schwerdtle, Tanja

AU - Vleminckx, Christiane

AU - Vollmer, Günter

AU - Wallace, Heather

AU - Fürst, Peter

AU - Baert, Katleen

AU - Abrahantes, José Cortiñas

AU - Dujardin, Bruno

AU - Ferrini, Krizia

AU - Petersen, Annette

AU - EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

N1 - The Panel wishes to thank the EFSA staff members: Davide Arcella and Valentina Bocca for the support provided to this scientific output. The CONTAM Panel acknowledges all European competent institutions and other stakeholders that provided occurrence data on aflatoxins in peanut, peanut butter and peanut oil, and supported the data collection for the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. Adopted: 23 January 2018

PY - 2018/2

Y1 - 2018/2

N2 - EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion regarding the effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level (ML) for ‘aflatoxin total’ (AFT; sum of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2) from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof. Aflatoxins are genotoxic and cause hepatocellular carcinomas in humans. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) evaluated 8,085 samples of peanuts and 472 samples of peanut butter, with > 60% left‐censored. The mean concentration of AFT in peanuts was 2.65/3.56 μg/kg (lower bound (LB)/upper bound (UB)) with a maximum of 1,429 μg/kg. The mean concentration in peanut butter was 1.47/1.92 μg/kg (LB/UB) with a maximum of 407 μg/kg. Peanut oil was not included since all data were left‐censored and the ML does not apply for oil. Exposure was calculated for a ‘Current ML’ and ‘Increased ML’ scenario, and mean chronic exposure estimates for consumers only, amounted to 0.04–2.74 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day and 0.07–4.28 ng/kg bw per day, respectively. The highest exposures were calculated for adolescents and other children. The CONTAM Panel used the cancer potencies estimated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for the risk characterisation. Under the scenario of the current ML, the cancer risk was estimated to range between 0.001 and 0.213 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Under the scenario of the increased ML, it ranged between 0.001 and 0.333 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Comparing these data calculated under the current ML scenario with the yearly excess cancer risk of 0.014 shows a higher risk for consumers of peanuts and peanut butter in some surveys. The calculated cancer risks indicate that an increase of the ML would further increase the risk by a factor of 1.6–1.8.

AB - EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion regarding the effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level (ML) for ‘aflatoxin total’ (AFT; sum of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2) from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof. Aflatoxins are genotoxic and cause hepatocellular carcinomas in humans. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) evaluated 8,085 samples of peanuts and 472 samples of peanut butter, with > 60% left‐censored. The mean concentration of AFT in peanuts was 2.65/3.56 μg/kg (lower bound (LB)/upper bound (UB)) with a maximum of 1,429 μg/kg. The mean concentration in peanut butter was 1.47/1.92 μg/kg (LB/UB) with a maximum of 407 μg/kg. Peanut oil was not included since all data were left‐censored and the ML does not apply for oil. Exposure was calculated for a ‘Current ML’ and ‘Increased ML’ scenario, and mean chronic exposure estimates for consumers only, amounted to 0.04–2.74 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day and 0.07–4.28 ng/kg bw per day, respectively. The highest exposures were calculated for adolescents and other children. The CONTAM Panel used the cancer potencies estimated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for the risk characterisation. Under the scenario of the current ML, the cancer risk was estimated to range between 0.001 and 0.213 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Under the scenario of the increased ML, it ranged between 0.001 and 0.333 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Comparing these data calculated under the current ML scenario with the yearly excess cancer risk of 0.014 shows a higher risk for consumers of peanuts and peanut butter in some surveys. The calculated cancer risks indicate that an increase of the ML would further increase the risk by a factor of 1.6–1.8.

KW - aflatoxin

KW - peanuts

KW - occurence

KW - exposure

KW - maximum level (ML)

KW - public health

U2 - 10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5175

DO - 10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5175

M3 - Article

VL - 16

JO - EFSA Journal

JF - EFSA Journal

SN - 1831-4732

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M1 - e05175

ER -