Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile

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Abstract

There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70% of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30% of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4% carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35% carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P<0.001, SED 0.350). Although the LC and MC diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and beta-cryptoxanthin (P<0.005), these were still above the values indicative of deficiency. Interestingly, plasma vitamin C concentrations increased on consumption of the LC diet (P<0.05). Plasma markers of insulin resistance (P<0.001), lipaemia and inflammation (P<0.05, TNF-alpha and IL-10) improved similarly on both diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)282-291
Number of pages10
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume106
Issue number2
Early online date27 Apr 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jul 2011

Keywords

  • weight loss
  • antioxidant status
  • metabolic profile
  • CVD
  • high-protein diets
  • very-low-carbohydrate
  • necrosis-factor-alpha
  • fat-free mass
  • obese women
  • insulin-resistance
  • circulating adiponectin
  • adhesion molecules
  • glucose-metabolism
  • body-composition
  • adipose-tissue

Cite this

@article{ef3ba769dd4640c296cfecb6d62ada9f,
title = "Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile",
abstract = "There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70{\%} of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30{\%} of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4{\%} carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35{\%} carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P<0.001, SED 0.350). Although the LC and MC diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and beta-cryptoxanthin (P<0.005), these were still above the values indicative of deficiency. Interestingly, plasma vitamin C concentrations increased on consumption of the LC diet (P<0.05). Plasma markers of insulin resistance (P<0.001), lipaemia and inflammation (P<0.05, TNF-alpha and IL-10) improved similarly on both diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.",
keywords = "weight loss, antioxidant status, metabolic profile, CVD, high-protein diets, very-low-carbohydrate, necrosis-factor-alpha, fat-free mass, obese women, insulin-resistance, circulating adiponectin, adhesion molecules, glucose-metabolism, body-composition, adipose-tissue",
author = "Johnstone, {Alexandra M.} and Lobley, {Gerald E.} and Horgan, {Graham W.} and Bremner, {David M.} and Fyfe, {Claire L.} and Morrice, {Philip C.} and Duthie, {Garry G.}",
year = "2011",
month = "7",
day = "28",
doi = "10.1017/S0007114511000092",
language = "English",
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pages = "282--291",
journal = "British Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "0007-1145",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile

AU - Johnstone, Alexandra M.

AU - Lobley, Gerald E.

AU - Horgan, Graham W.

AU - Bremner, David M.

AU - Fyfe, Claire L.

AU - Morrice, Philip C.

AU - Duthie, Garry G.

PY - 2011/7/28

Y1 - 2011/7/28

N2 - There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70% of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30% of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4% carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35% carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P<0.001, SED 0.350). Although the LC and MC diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and beta-cryptoxanthin (P<0.005), these were still above the values indicative of deficiency. Interestingly, plasma vitamin C concentrations increased on consumption of the LC diet (P<0.05). Plasma markers of insulin resistance (P<0.001), lipaemia and inflammation (P<0.05, TNF-alpha and IL-10) improved similarly on both diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.

AB - There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70% of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30% of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4% carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35% carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P<0.001, SED 0.350). Although the LC and MC diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and beta-cryptoxanthin (P<0.005), these were still above the values indicative of deficiency. Interestingly, plasma vitamin C concentrations increased on consumption of the LC diet (P<0.05). Plasma markers of insulin resistance (P<0.001), lipaemia and inflammation (P<0.05, TNF-alpha and IL-10) improved similarly on both diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.

KW - weight loss

KW - antioxidant status

KW - metabolic profile

KW - CVD

KW - high-protein diets

KW - very-low-carbohydrate

KW - necrosis-factor-alpha

KW - fat-free mass

KW - obese women

KW - insulin-resistance

KW - circulating adiponectin

KW - adhesion molecules

KW - glucose-metabolism

KW - body-composition

KW - adipose-tissue

U2 - 10.1017/S0007114511000092

DO - 10.1017/S0007114511000092

M3 - Article

VL - 106

SP - 282

EP - 291

JO - British Journal of Nutrition

JF - British Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0007-1145

IS - 2

ER -