Effects of climate and management intensity on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland systems across Europe

C.R. Flechard, P. Ambus, U. Skiba, R. M. Rees, A. Hensen, A. van Amstel, A. van den Polvan Dasselaar, J.-F. Soussana, M. Jones, J. Clifton-Brown, A. Raschi, L. Horvath, A. Neftel, M. Jocher, C. Ammann, J. Leifeld, J. Fuhrer, P. Calanca, E. Thalman, K. Pilegaard & 23 others C. Di Marco, C. Campbell, E. Nemitz, K. J. Hargreaves, P. E. Levy, B. C. Ball, S. K. Jones, W. C. M. van de Bulk, T. Groot, M. Blom, R. Domingues, G. Kasper, V. Allard, E. Ceschia, P. Cellier, P. Laville, C. Henault, F. Bizouard, M. Abdalla, M. Williams, S. Baronti, F. Berretti, B. Grosz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

209 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Soil/atmosphere exchange fluxes of nitrous oxide were monitored for a 3-year period at 10 grassland sites in eight European countries (Denmark, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Switzerland and United Kingdom), spanning a wide range of climatic, environmental and soil conditions. Most study sites investigated the influence of one or several management practices on N2O exchange, such as nitrogen fertilization and grazing intensity. Fluxes were measured using non-steady state chambers at most sites, and alternative measurement techniques such as eddy covariance and fast-box using tunable diode laser spectroscopy were implemented at some sites. The overall uncertainty in annual flux estimates derived from chamber measurements may be as high as 50% due to the temporal and spatial variability in fluxes, which warrants the future use of continuous measurements, if possible at the field scale. Annual emission rates were higher from intensive than from extensive grasslands, by a factor 4 if grazed (1.77 versus 0.48 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1) and by a factor 3 if ungrazed (0.95 versus 0.32 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1). Annual emission factors for fertilized systems were highly variable, ranging from 0.01% to 3.56%, but the mean emission factor across all sites (0.75%) was substantially lower than the IPCC default value of 1.25%. Emission factors for individual fertilization events increased with soil temperature and were generally higher for water-filled pore space values in the range 60–90%, though precipitation onto dry soils was also shown to lead to high losses of N2O-N from applied fertilizer. An empirical, multiple regression model to predict N2O emission factors on the basis of soil temperature, moisture and rainfall is developed, explaining half of the variability in observed emission factors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-152
Number of pages18
JournalAgriculture Ecosystems & Environment
Volume121
Issue number1-2
Early online date31 Jan 2007
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2007

Fingerprint

emissions factor
nitrous oxide
grasslands
grassland
climate
soil temperature
grazing intensity
soil air
eddy covariance
pore space
Hungary
Ireland
Denmark
Switzerland
multiple regression
United Kingdom
lasers
spectroscopy
soil quality
management practice

Keywords

  • nitrous oxide
  • N2O flux
  • grassland
  • grazing
  • fertilizer
  • emission factor

Cite this

Flechard, C. R., Ambus, P., Skiba, U., Rees, R. M., Hensen, A., van Amstel, A., ... Grosz, B. (2007). Effects of climate and management intensity on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland systems across Europe. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 121(1-2), 135-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.12.024

Effects of climate and management intensity on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland systems across Europe. / Flechard, C.R.; Ambus, P.; Skiba, U.; Rees, R. M.; Hensen, A.; van Amstel, A. ; van den Polvan Dasselaar, A.; Soussana, J.-F.; Jones, M.; Clifton-Brown, J.; Raschi, A. ; Horvath, L.; Neftel, A.; Jocher, M.; Ammann, C.; Leifeld, J.; Fuhrer, J.; Calanca, P. ; Thalman, E. ; Pilegaard, K.; Di Marco, C.; Campbell, C.; Nemitz, E.; Hargreaves, K. J. ; Levy, P. E.; Ball, B. C.; Jones, S. K.; van de Bulk, W. C. M.; Groot, T. ; Blom, M. ; Domingues, R. ; Kasper, G.; Allard, V. ; Ceschia, E.; Cellier, P.; Laville, P.; Henault, C. ; Bizouard, F. ; Abdalla, M.; Williams, M.; Baronti, S. ; Berretti, F.; Grosz, B. .

In: Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 121, No. 1-2, 06.2007, p. 135-152.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Flechard, CR, Ambus, P, Skiba, U, Rees, RM, Hensen, A, van Amstel, A, van den Polvan Dasselaar, A, Soussana, J-F, Jones, M, Clifton-Brown, J, Raschi, A, Horvath, L, Neftel, A, Jocher, M, Ammann, C, Leifeld, J, Fuhrer, J, Calanca, P, Thalman, E, Pilegaard, K, Di Marco, C, Campbell, C, Nemitz, E, Hargreaves, KJ, Levy, PE, Ball, BC, Jones, SK, van de Bulk, WCM, Groot, T, Blom, M, Domingues, R, Kasper, G, Allard, V, Ceschia, E, Cellier, P, Laville, P, Henault, C, Bizouard, F, Abdalla, M, Williams, M, Baronti, S, Berretti, F & Grosz, B 2007, 'Effects of climate and management intensity on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland systems across Europe', Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, vol. 121, no. 1-2, pp. 135-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.12.024
Flechard, C.R. ; Ambus, P. ; Skiba, U. ; Rees, R. M. ; Hensen, A. ; van Amstel, A. ; van den Polvan Dasselaar, A. ; Soussana, J.-F. ; Jones, M. ; Clifton-Brown, J. ; Raschi, A. ; Horvath, L. ; Neftel, A. ; Jocher, M. ; Ammann, C. ; Leifeld, J. ; Fuhrer, J. ; Calanca, P. ; Thalman, E. ; Pilegaard, K. ; Di Marco, C. ; Campbell, C. ; Nemitz, E. ; Hargreaves, K. J. ; Levy, P. E. ; Ball, B. C. ; Jones, S. K. ; van de Bulk, W. C. M. ; Groot, T. ; Blom, M. ; Domingues, R. ; Kasper, G. ; Allard, V. ; Ceschia, E. ; Cellier, P. ; Laville, P. ; Henault, C. ; Bizouard, F. ; Abdalla, M. ; Williams, M. ; Baronti, S. ; Berretti, F. ; Grosz, B. . / Effects of climate and management intensity on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland systems across Europe. In: Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 2007 ; Vol. 121, No. 1-2. pp. 135-152.
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abstract = "Soil/atmosphere exchange fluxes of nitrous oxide were monitored for a 3-year period at 10 grassland sites in eight European countries (Denmark, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Switzerland and United Kingdom), spanning a wide range of climatic, environmental and soil conditions. Most study sites investigated the influence of one or several management practices on N2O exchange, such as nitrogen fertilization and grazing intensity. Fluxes were measured using non-steady state chambers at most sites, and alternative measurement techniques such as eddy covariance and fast-box using tunable diode laser spectroscopy were implemented at some sites. The overall uncertainty in annual flux estimates derived from chamber measurements may be as high as 50{\%} due to the temporal and spatial variability in fluxes, which warrants the future use of continuous measurements, if possible at the field scale. Annual emission rates were higher from intensive than from extensive grasslands, by a factor 4 if grazed (1.77 versus 0.48 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1) and by a factor 3 if ungrazed (0.95 versus 0.32 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1). Annual emission factors for fertilized systems were highly variable, ranging from 0.01{\%} to 3.56{\%}, but the mean emission factor across all sites (0.75{\%}) was substantially lower than the IPCC default value of 1.25{\%}. Emission factors for individual fertilization events increased with soil temperature and were generally higher for water-filled pore space values in the range 60–90{\%}, though precipitation onto dry soils was also shown to lead to high losses of N2O-N from applied fertilizer. An empirical, multiple regression model to predict N2O emission factors on the basis of soil temperature, moisture and rainfall is developed, explaining half of the variability in observed emission factors.",
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AU - Flechard, C.R.

AU - Ambus, P.

AU - Skiba, U.

AU - Rees, R. M.

AU - Hensen, A.

AU - van Amstel, A.

AU - van den Polvan Dasselaar, A.

AU - Soussana, J.-F.

AU - Jones, M.

AU - Clifton-Brown, J.

AU - Raschi, A.

AU - Horvath, L.

AU - Neftel, A.

AU - Jocher, M.

AU - Ammann, C.

AU - Leifeld, J.

AU - Fuhrer, J.

AU - Calanca, P.

AU - Thalman, E.

AU - Pilegaard, K.

AU - Di Marco, C.

AU - Campbell, C.

AU - Nemitz, E.

AU - Hargreaves, K. J.

AU - Levy, P. E.

AU - Ball, B. C.

AU - Jones, S. K.

AU - van de Bulk, W. C. M.

AU - Groot, T.

AU - Blom, M.

AU - Domingues, R.

AU - Kasper, G.

AU - Allard, V.

AU - Ceschia, E.

AU - Cellier, P.

AU - Laville, P.

AU - Henault, C.

AU - Bizouard, F.

AU - Abdalla, M.

AU - Williams, M.

AU - Baronti, S.

AU - Berretti, F.

AU - Grosz, B.

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N2 - Soil/atmosphere exchange fluxes of nitrous oxide were monitored for a 3-year period at 10 grassland sites in eight European countries (Denmark, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Switzerland and United Kingdom), spanning a wide range of climatic, environmental and soil conditions. Most study sites investigated the influence of one or several management practices on N2O exchange, such as nitrogen fertilization and grazing intensity. Fluxes were measured using non-steady state chambers at most sites, and alternative measurement techniques such as eddy covariance and fast-box using tunable diode laser spectroscopy were implemented at some sites. The overall uncertainty in annual flux estimates derived from chamber measurements may be as high as 50% due to the temporal and spatial variability in fluxes, which warrants the future use of continuous measurements, if possible at the field scale. Annual emission rates were higher from intensive than from extensive grasslands, by a factor 4 if grazed (1.77 versus 0.48 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1) and by a factor 3 if ungrazed (0.95 versus 0.32 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1). Annual emission factors for fertilized systems were highly variable, ranging from 0.01% to 3.56%, but the mean emission factor across all sites (0.75%) was substantially lower than the IPCC default value of 1.25%. Emission factors for individual fertilization events increased with soil temperature and were generally higher for water-filled pore space values in the range 60–90%, though precipitation onto dry soils was also shown to lead to high losses of N2O-N from applied fertilizer. An empirical, multiple regression model to predict N2O emission factors on the basis of soil temperature, moisture and rainfall is developed, explaining half of the variability in observed emission factors.

AB - Soil/atmosphere exchange fluxes of nitrous oxide were monitored for a 3-year period at 10 grassland sites in eight European countries (Denmark, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Switzerland and United Kingdom), spanning a wide range of climatic, environmental and soil conditions. Most study sites investigated the influence of one or several management practices on N2O exchange, such as nitrogen fertilization and grazing intensity. Fluxes were measured using non-steady state chambers at most sites, and alternative measurement techniques such as eddy covariance and fast-box using tunable diode laser spectroscopy were implemented at some sites. The overall uncertainty in annual flux estimates derived from chamber measurements may be as high as 50% due to the temporal and spatial variability in fluxes, which warrants the future use of continuous measurements, if possible at the field scale. Annual emission rates were higher from intensive than from extensive grasslands, by a factor 4 if grazed (1.77 versus 0.48 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1) and by a factor 3 if ungrazed (0.95 versus 0.32 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1). Annual emission factors for fertilized systems were highly variable, ranging from 0.01% to 3.56%, but the mean emission factor across all sites (0.75%) was substantially lower than the IPCC default value of 1.25%. Emission factors for individual fertilization events increased with soil temperature and were generally higher for water-filled pore space values in the range 60–90%, though precipitation onto dry soils was also shown to lead to high losses of N2O-N from applied fertilizer. An empirical, multiple regression model to predict N2O emission factors on the basis of soil temperature, moisture and rainfall is developed, explaining half of the variability in observed emission factors.

KW - nitrous oxide

KW - N2O flux

KW - grassland

KW - grazing

KW - fertilizer

KW - emission factor

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