A three-dimensional, mathematical model of the elbow and wrist joints, including 15 muscle units, 3 ligaments and 4 joint forces, has been developed. A new strain gauge transducer has been developed to measure functional grip forces. The device measures radial forces divided into six components and forces of up to 250 N per segment can be measured with an accuracy of ±1%. Ten normal volunteers were asked to complete four tasks representing occupational activities, during which time their grip force was monitored. Together with kinematic information from the six-camera Vicon data, the moment effect of these loads at the joints was calculated. These external moments are assumed to be balanced by the internal moments, generated by the muscles, passive soft tissue and bone contact. The effectiveness of the body's internal structures in generating joint moments was assessed by studying the geometry of a simplified model of the structures, where information about the lines of action and moment arms of muscles, tendons and ligaments is contained. The assumption of equilibrium between these external and internal joint moments allows formulation of a set of equations from which muscle and joint forces can be calculated. A two stage, linear optimisation routine minimising the overall muscle stress and the sum of the joint forces has been used to overcome the force-sharing problem. Humero-ulnar forces of up to 1600 N, humero-radial forces of up to 800 N and wrist joint forces of up to 2800 N were found for moderate level activity. The model was validated by comparison with other studies.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of Biomechanics|
|Publication status||Published - May 2000|