Elite Collusion and Public Defiance: Sweden's Euro Referendum in 2003

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25 Citations (Scopus)


In a referendum held on Sunday, 14 September 2003, the Swedish electorate rejected membership of the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). After a campaign characterised as heated by Swedish standards, and the murder of Foreign Minister Anna Lindh, the referendum delivered a clear 'No' majority. In this article, it is argued that while the 2003 EMU referendum may not have compromised the use of referendums as an occasional complement to representative democracy, it did indicate a substantial gap between citizens and the political elite.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)503-517
Number of pages14
JournalWest European Politics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2004


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