Employing visual inspection and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate Anisakis simplex s.l. infection in herring viscera

Miguel Bao, Norval J. C. Strachan, Lee C. Hastie, Ken MacKenzie, Hugh C Seton, Graham J. Pierce

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Anisakis spp. and Pseudoterranova spp. are anisakid nematodes with complex life cycles that utilise crustacean, fish and, finally, marine mammal hosts. Many species of marine fish are used by these larval anisakids as paratenic or intermediate hosts, and these are capable of infecting human consumers, causing public health, economic and social concerns worldwide. They are responsible for a fish-borne zoonosis called anisakidosis and associated allergic problems in humans, monetary loss to the fishing industry and the avoidance of fish products by consumers. An understanding of the parasite/fish relationship and the development of improved methods and tools for parasite detection are important to provide better insights to their biology, as well as technology to control the quality and safety of fishery products. In the present study, Anisakis simplex s.l. infection levels and location within the viscera of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) were visually investigated to provide a better understanding of settlement behaviour within the host fish, and to test if Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a useful technology to detect anisakids in the viscera of whole herring. MRI potential to detect anisakids in fish muscle was also tested. Visual inspection determined an ascaridoid prevalence of 76% (>90% A. simplex s.l. (likely A. simplex s.s.) in herring viscera, with 69% of the parasites located outside the hind stomach and intestine areas. MRI demonstrated a capacity to detect A. simplex s.l. accumulations in the viscera of whole herring, A. simplex s.l. larvae and their movements within fish muscle, and Pseudoterranova sp. larva in fish muscle. Visual inspection of herring showed that A. simplex s.l. larvae frequently accumulate in the posterior end of the terminal blind sac of the stomach, around the ductus pneumaticus, as had previously been reported in herring and other clupeids. It has been hypothesized that the food digestion process, visceral organ topography and physicochemical conditions of fish tissues may play an important role in determining the encapsulation site and in vivo migration behaviours of A. simplex s.l. larvae within fish hosts. MRI showed potential to investigate the occurrence of anisakids and possibly other macroparasites of fish, and to detect anisakids in fishery products in situ, in a 3D environment and in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. Further investigation is required to determine if MRI can be used as a routine anisakid inspection tool by the fishing industry.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-47
Number of pages8
JournalFood control
Volume75
Early online date19 Dec 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2017

Fingerprint

Anisakis
Anisakis simplex
Viscera
animal organs
herring
magnetic resonance imaging
Fishes
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Infection
fish
infection
Pseudoterranova
Larva
fish industry
Clupea harengus
Fisheries
Parasites
parasites
muscles
larvae

Keywords

  • Anisakis
  • Pseudoterranova
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Parasite detection
  • Herring
  • Fish

Cite this

Employing visual inspection and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate Anisakis simplex s.l. infection in herring viscera. / Bao, Miguel; Strachan, Norval J. C.; Hastie, Lee C.; MacKenzie, Ken; Seton, Hugh C; Pierce, Graham J.

In: Food control, Vol. 75, 05.2017, p. 40-47.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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note = "We thank Jamie Dawson and William Page for their work detecting anisakids in herring samples. M. Bao is supported by a PhD grant from the University of Aberdeen and also by financial support of the contract from the EU Project PARASITE (grant number 312068). This work received funding from the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland) and their support is gratefully acknowledged. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions.",
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AU - Strachan, Norval J. C.

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AU - MacKenzie, Ken

AU - Seton, Hugh C

AU - Pierce, Graham J.

N1 - We thank Jamie Dawson and William Page for their work detecting anisakids in herring samples. M. Bao is supported by a PhD grant from the University of Aberdeen and also by financial support of the contract from the EU Project PARASITE (grant number 312068). This work received funding from the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland) and their support is gratefully acknowledged. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions.

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N2 - Anisakis spp. and Pseudoterranova spp. are anisakid nematodes with complex life cycles that utilise crustacean, fish and, finally, marine mammal hosts. Many species of marine fish are used by these larval anisakids as paratenic or intermediate hosts, and these are capable of infecting human consumers, causing public health, economic and social concerns worldwide. They are responsible for a fish-borne zoonosis called anisakidosis and associated allergic problems in humans, monetary loss to the fishing industry and the avoidance of fish products by consumers. An understanding of the parasite/fish relationship and the development of improved methods and tools for parasite detection are important to provide better insights to their biology, as well as technology to control the quality and safety of fishery products. In the present study, Anisakis simplex s.l. infection levels and location within the viscera of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) were visually investigated to provide a better understanding of settlement behaviour within the host fish, and to test if Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a useful technology to detect anisakids in the viscera of whole herring. MRI potential to detect anisakids in fish muscle was also tested. Visual inspection determined an ascaridoid prevalence of 76% (>90% A. simplex s.l. (likely A. simplex s.s.) in herring viscera, with 69% of the parasites located outside the hind stomach and intestine areas. MRI demonstrated a capacity to detect A. simplex s.l. accumulations in the viscera of whole herring, A. simplex s.l. larvae and their movements within fish muscle, and Pseudoterranova sp. larva in fish muscle. Visual inspection of herring showed that A. simplex s.l. larvae frequently accumulate in the posterior end of the terminal blind sac of the stomach, around the ductus pneumaticus, as had previously been reported in herring and other clupeids. It has been hypothesized that the food digestion process, visceral organ topography and physicochemical conditions of fish tissues may play an important role in determining the encapsulation site and in vivo migration behaviours of A. simplex s.l. larvae within fish hosts. MRI showed potential to investigate the occurrence of anisakids and possibly other macroparasites of fish, and to detect anisakids in fishery products in situ, in a 3D environment and in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. Further investigation is required to determine if MRI can be used as a routine anisakid inspection tool by the fishing industry.

AB - Anisakis spp. and Pseudoterranova spp. are anisakid nematodes with complex life cycles that utilise crustacean, fish and, finally, marine mammal hosts. Many species of marine fish are used by these larval anisakids as paratenic or intermediate hosts, and these are capable of infecting human consumers, causing public health, economic and social concerns worldwide. They are responsible for a fish-borne zoonosis called anisakidosis and associated allergic problems in humans, monetary loss to the fishing industry and the avoidance of fish products by consumers. An understanding of the parasite/fish relationship and the development of improved methods and tools for parasite detection are important to provide better insights to their biology, as well as technology to control the quality and safety of fishery products. In the present study, Anisakis simplex s.l. infection levels and location within the viscera of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) were visually investigated to provide a better understanding of settlement behaviour within the host fish, and to test if Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a useful technology to detect anisakids in the viscera of whole herring. MRI potential to detect anisakids in fish muscle was also tested. Visual inspection determined an ascaridoid prevalence of 76% (>90% A. simplex s.l. (likely A. simplex s.s.) in herring viscera, with 69% of the parasites located outside the hind stomach and intestine areas. MRI demonstrated a capacity to detect A. simplex s.l. accumulations in the viscera of whole herring, A. simplex s.l. larvae and their movements within fish muscle, and Pseudoterranova sp. larva in fish muscle. Visual inspection of herring showed that A. simplex s.l. larvae frequently accumulate in the posterior end of the terminal blind sac of the stomach, around the ductus pneumaticus, as had previously been reported in herring and other clupeids. It has been hypothesized that the food digestion process, visceral organ topography and physicochemical conditions of fish tissues may play an important role in determining the encapsulation site and in vivo migration behaviours of A. simplex s.l. larvae within fish hosts. MRI showed potential to investigate the occurrence of anisakids and possibly other macroparasites of fish, and to detect anisakids in fishery products in situ, in a 3D environment and in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. Further investigation is required to determine if MRI can be used as a routine anisakid inspection tool by the fishing industry.

KW - Anisakis

KW - Pseudoterranova

KW - Magnetic Resonance Imaging

KW - Parasite detection

KW - Herring

KW - Fish

U2 - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.12.030

DO - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.12.030

M3 - Article

VL - 75

SP - 40

EP - 47

JO - Food control

JF - Food control

SN - 0956-7135

ER -