Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism

the Geoparkinson study

F D Dick, G. De Palma, A. Ahmadi, N W Scott, G J Prescott, J Bennett, S Semple, S Dick, C Counsell, P. Mozzoni, N Haites, S. Bezzina Wettinger, A. Mutti, M. Otelea, A Seaton, P. Söderkvist, A. Felice, Geoparkinson Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

181 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between Parkinson's disease and other degenerative parkinsonian syndromes and environmental factors in five European countries. METHODS: A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with Parkinson's disease) and 1989 controls in Scotland, Italy, Sweden, Romania and Malta was carried out. Cases were defined using the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank criteria, and those with drug-induced or vascular parkinsonism or dementia were excluded. Subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire about lifetime occupational and hobby exposure to solvents, pesticides, iron, copper and manganese. Lifetime and average annual exposures were estimated blind to disease status using a job-exposure matrix modified by subjective exposure modelling. Results were analysed using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, country, tobacco use, ever knocked unconscious and family history of Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed significantly increased odds ratios for Parkinson's disease/parkinsonism with an exposure-response relationship for pesticides (low vs no exposure, odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.57, high vs no exposure, OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.88) and ever knocked unconscious (once vs never, OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.68, more than once vs never, OR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.59). Hypnotic, anxiolytic or antidepressant drug use for more than 1 year and a family history of Parkinson's disease showed significantly increased odds ratios. Tobacco use was protective (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.60). Analyses confined to subjects with Parkinson's disease gave similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The association of pesticide exposure with Parkinson's disease suggests a causative role. Repeated traumatic loss of consciousness is associated with increased risk.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)666-672
Number of pages7
JournalOccupational and Environmental Medicine
Volume64
Issue number10
Early online date1 Mar 2007
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2007

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Parkinsonian Disorders
Parkinson Disease
Odds Ratio
Pesticides
Tobacco Use
Logistic Models
Malta
Hobbies
Romania
Unconsciousness
Anti-Anxiety Agents
Scotland
Occupational Exposure
Manganese
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Sweden
Italy
Antidepressive Agents
Blood Vessels
Dementia

Keywords

  • aged
  • anti-anxiety agents
  • antidepressive agents
  • case-control studies
  • causality
  • comorbidity
  • craniocerebral trauma
  • environmental exposure
  • Europe
  • female
  • genetic predisposition to disease
  • humans
  • hypnotics and sedatives
  • logistic models
  • male
  • mental disorders
  • middle aged
  • odds ratio
  • Parkinson Disease
  • pesticides
  • risk factors
  • tobacco use disorder
  • unconsciousness

Cite this

Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism : the Geoparkinson study. / Dick, F D; De Palma, G.; Ahmadi, A.; Scott, N W; Prescott, G J; Bennett, J; Semple, S; Dick, S; Counsell, C; Mozzoni, P.; Haites, N; Wettinger, S. Bezzina; Mutti, A.; Otelea, M.; Seaton, A; Söderkvist, P.; Felice, A.; Geoparkinson Study Group.

In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 64, No. 10, 10.2007, p. 666-672.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dick, FD, De Palma, G, Ahmadi, A, Scott, NW, Prescott, GJ, Bennett, J, Semple, S, Dick, S, Counsell, C, Mozzoni, P, Haites, N, Wettinger, SB, Mutti, A, Otelea, M, Seaton, A, Söderkvist, P, Felice, A & Geoparkinson Study Group 2007, 'Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism: the Geoparkinson study', Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 666-672. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2006.027003
Dick, F D ; De Palma, G. ; Ahmadi, A. ; Scott, N W ; Prescott, G J ; Bennett, J ; Semple, S ; Dick, S ; Counsell, C ; Mozzoni, P. ; Haites, N ; Wettinger, S. Bezzina ; Mutti, A. ; Otelea, M. ; Seaton, A ; Söderkvist, P. ; Felice, A. ; Geoparkinson Study Group. / Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism : the Geoparkinson study. In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2007 ; Vol. 64, No. 10. pp. 666-672.
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AU - Dick, S

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N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between Parkinson's disease and other degenerative parkinsonian syndromes and environmental factors in five European countries. METHODS: A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with Parkinson's disease) and 1989 controls in Scotland, Italy, Sweden, Romania and Malta was carried out. Cases were defined using the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank criteria, and those with drug-induced or vascular parkinsonism or dementia were excluded. Subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire about lifetime occupational and hobby exposure to solvents, pesticides, iron, copper and manganese. Lifetime and average annual exposures were estimated blind to disease status using a job-exposure matrix modified by subjective exposure modelling. Results were analysed using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, country, tobacco use, ever knocked unconscious and family history of Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed significantly increased odds ratios for Parkinson's disease/parkinsonism with an exposure-response relationship for pesticides (low vs no exposure, odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.57, high vs no exposure, OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.88) and ever knocked unconscious (once vs never, OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.68, more than once vs never, OR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.59). Hypnotic, anxiolytic or antidepressant drug use for more than 1 year and a family history of Parkinson's disease showed significantly increased odds ratios. Tobacco use was protective (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.60). Analyses confined to subjects with Parkinson's disease gave similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The association of pesticide exposure with Parkinson's disease suggests a causative role. Repeated traumatic loss of consciousness is associated with increased risk.

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