Epidemiology of Invasive Fungal Disease in Children

Zoi Dorothea Pana, Emmanuel Roilides, Adilia Warris, Andreas H. Groll, Theoklis Zaoutis

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2 Citations (Scopus)
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Considerable progress has been made in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of pediatric patients with invasive fungal disease (IFD). The reported decreasing trend in the incidence of invasive candidiasis (IC) over the past 15 years in both neonates and children has been encouraging. Nevertheless, due to the growing number of immunocompromised children at risk for IFD, this disease continues to be associated with significant morbidity and death and with increased financial burden to the health care system. Therefore, it is important to understand the contemporary epidemiology of IFD. Incidence rates of IFD in children are affected by geographical, population, and time variability. There is an ongoing effort to constantly document and update the incidence of IFD and species distribution among different pediatric populations as a means to direct preventative, diagnostic, and therapeutic resources to the most appropriate subset of patients. Children with a hematologic malignancy or a primary or secondary immunodeficiency, those undergoing solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and premature neonates are the major subsets of pediatric patients at risk of developing IFD. In this review, we focus on fungal disease epidemiology with a specific emphasis on the 2 most common pediatric IFDs, IC and invasive aspergillosis (IA).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S3-S11
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Issue numbersuppl_1
Early online date30 Aug 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017


  • epidemiology
  • invasive aspergillosis
  • invasive candidiasis
  • invasive fungal disease
  • pediatric patients


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