Erucic acid in feed and food

Heather Wallace, Helle Katrine Knutsen, Jan Alexander, Lars Barregård, Margherita Bignami, Beat Brüschweiler, Sandra Ceccatelli, Michael Dinovi, Lutz Edler, Bettina Grasl-Kraupp, Christer Hogstrand, Laurentius (Ron) Hoogenboom, Carlo Stefano Nebbia, Isabelle Oswald, Annette Petersen, Martin Rose, Alain-Claude Roudot, Tanja Schwerdtle, Günter Vollmer, Bruce Cottrill & 10 others Eugenia Dogliotti, Juha Laakso, Manfred Metzler, Leonardo Velasco, Katleen Baert, Jose Angel Gómez Ruiz, Enikő Varga, Barbara Dörr , Christiane Vleminckx, EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

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Abstract

Erucic acid is the trivial name of the fatty acid cis-13-docosenoic acid and occurs at high concentrations mainly in the seeds of species of the Brassicaceae (e.g. rape seed or mustard seed). The European Commission requested EFSA to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of erucic acid in feed and food. For most humans, the main contributor to dietary exposure to erucic acid was the food group ‘Fine bakery wares’. In ‘Infants’, ‘Food for infants and small children’ was the main contributor to exposure. The heart is the principal target organ for toxic effects after exposure. Myocardial lipidosis was identified as the critical effect for chronic exposure to erucic acid. This effect is reversible and transient during prolonged exposure. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 7 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for erucic acid was established, based on a no observed adverse effect level of 0.7 g/kg bw per day for lipidosis in young rats and newborn piglets. Mean chronic exposure of the different groups of the population did not exceed the TDI. The 95th percentile dietary exposure level was highest in infants and other children, ranging from 1.3 to 7.4 mg/kg bw per day; the higher level being at the level of the TDI. This may indicate a risk for young individuals with high erucic acid exposure. In pigs, levels of erucic acid are unlikely to represent a health concern. However, for poultry, the small margin between the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) and the estimated exposure may indicate a health risk where maximum inclusion rates are applied. Due to the absence of adequate data, the risk for ruminants, horses, fish and rabbits could not be assessed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4593
Pages (from-to)1-173
Number of pages173
JournalEFSA Journal
Volume14
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2016

Fingerprint

erucic acid
acceptable daily intake
dietary exposure
chronic exposure
body weight
lowest observed effect level
mustard seed
no observed adverse effect level
infant foods
animal and human health
food groups
rapeseed
Brassicaceae
piglets
ruminants
poultry
neonates
rabbits
heart
fatty acids

Keywords

  • erucic acid
  • rape seed
  • rapeseed oil
  • risk assessment
  • food
  • feed
  • cis-13-docosenoic acid

Cite this

Wallace, H., Knutsen, H. K., Alexander, J., Barregård, L., Bignami, M., Brüschweiler, B., ... EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) (2016). Erucic acid in feed and food. EFSA Journal, 14(11), 1-173. [4593]. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4593

Erucic acid in feed and food. / Wallace, Heather; Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Dinovi, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vollmer, Günter ; Cottrill, Bruce; Dogliotti, Eugenia; Laakso, Juha ; Metzler, Manfred ; Velasco, Leonardo ; Baert, Katleen; Gómez Ruiz, Jose Angel ; Varga, Enikő ; Dörr , Barbara ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM).

In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 14, No. 11, 4593, 11.2016, p. 1-173.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wallace, H, Knutsen, HK, Alexander, J, Barregård, L, Bignami, M, Brüschweiler, B, Ceccatelli, S, Dinovi, M, Edler, L, Grasl-Kraupp, B, Hogstrand, C, Hoogenboom, LR, Nebbia, CS, Oswald, I, Petersen, A, Rose, M, Roudot, A-C, Schwerdtle, T, Vollmer, G, Cottrill, B, Dogliotti, E, Laakso, J, Metzler, M, Velasco, L, Baert, K, Gómez Ruiz, JA, Varga, E, Dörr , B, Vleminckx, C & EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) 2016, 'Erucic acid in feed and food', EFSA Journal, vol. 14, no. 11, 4593, pp. 1-173. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4593
Wallace H, Knutsen HK, Alexander J, Barregård L, Bignami M, Brüschweiler B et al. Erucic acid in feed and food. EFSA Journal. 2016 Nov;14(11):1-173. 4593. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4593
Wallace, Heather ; Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vollmer, Günter ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dogliotti, Eugenia ; Laakso, Juha ; Metzler, Manfred ; Velasco, Leonardo ; Baert, Katleen ; Gómez Ruiz, Jose Angel ; Varga, Enikő ; Dörr , Barbara ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). / Erucic acid in feed and food. In: EFSA Journal. 2016 ; Vol. 14, No. 11. pp. 1-173.
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abstract = "Erucic acid is the trivial name of the fatty acid cis-13-docosenoic acid and occurs at high concentrations mainly in the seeds of species of the Brassicaceae (e.g. rape seed or mustard seed). The European Commission requested EFSA to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of erucic acid in feed and food. For most humans, the main contributor to dietary exposure to erucic acid was the food group ‘Fine bakery wares’. In ‘Infants’, ‘Food for infants and small children’ was the main contributor to exposure. The heart is the principal target organ for toxic effects after exposure. Myocardial lipidosis was identified as the critical effect for chronic exposure to erucic acid. This effect is reversible and transient during prolonged exposure. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 7 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for erucic acid was established, based on a no observed adverse effect level of 0.7 g/kg bw per day for lipidosis in young rats and newborn piglets. Mean chronic exposure of the different groups of the population did not exceed the TDI. The 95th percentile dietary exposure level was highest in infants and other children, ranging from 1.3 to 7.4 mg/kg bw per day; the higher level being at the level of the TDI. This may indicate a risk for young individuals with high erucic acid exposure. In pigs, levels of erucic acid are unlikely to represent a health concern. However, for poultry, the small margin between the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) and the estimated exposure may indicate a health risk where maximum inclusion rates are applied. Due to the absence of adequate data, the risk for ruminants, horses, fish and rabbits could not be assessed.",
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AU - Knutsen, Helle Katrine

AU - Alexander, Jan

AU - Barregård, Lars

AU - Bignami, Margherita

AU - Brüschweiler, Beat

AU - Ceccatelli, Sandra

AU - Dinovi, Michael

AU - Edler, Lutz

AU - Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina

AU - Hogstrand, Christer

AU - Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron)

AU - Nebbia, Carlo Stefano

AU - Oswald, Isabelle

AU - Petersen, Annette

AU - Rose, Martin

AU - Roudot, Alain-Claude

AU - Schwerdtle, Tanja

AU - Vollmer, Günter

AU - Cottrill, Bruce

AU - Dogliotti, Eugenia

AU - Laakso, Juha

AU - Metzler, Manfred

AU - Velasco, Leonardo

AU - Baert, Katleen

AU - Gómez Ruiz, Jose Angel

AU - Varga, Enikő

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AU - Vleminckx, Christiane

AU - EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

N1 - The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on erucic acid in food and feed: Bruce Cottrill, Eugenia Dogliotti, Juha Laakso, Manfred Metzler, Leonardo Velasco and Christiane Vleminckx for the preparatory work on this scientific output, the hearing expert: Mary Sheppard and EFSA staff members: Katleen Baert, Barbara Dörr, Jose Angel Gomez Ruiz and Enikő Varga for the support provided to this scientific opinion. The Panel acknowledges all European countries and European stakeholder organisations (FEDIOL, SNE and FEFAC) that provided occurrence data on erucic acid in food and feed. The Panel wishes to thank all European countries that supported the collection of consumption data for the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database.

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N2 - Erucic acid is the trivial name of the fatty acid cis-13-docosenoic acid and occurs at high concentrations mainly in the seeds of species of the Brassicaceae (e.g. rape seed or mustard seed). The European Commission requested EFSA to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of erucic acid in feed and food. For most humans, the main contributor to dietary exposure to erucic acid was the food group ‘Fine bakery wares’. In ‘Infants’, ‘Food for infants and small children’ was the main contributor to exposure. The heart is the principal target organ for toxic effects after exposure. Myocardial lipidosis was identified as the critical effect for chronic exposure to erucic acid. This effect is reversible and transient during prolonged exposure. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 7 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for erucic acid was established, based on a no observed adverse effect level of 0.7 g/kg bw per day for lipidosis in young rats and newborn piglets. Mean chronic exposure of the different groups of the population did not exceed the TDI. The 95th percentile dietary exposure level was highest in infants and other children, ranging from 1.3 to 7.4 mg/kg bw per day; the higher level being at the level of the TDI. This may indicate a risk for young individuals with high erucic acid exposure. In pigs, levels of erucic acid are unlikely to represent a health concern. However, for poultry, the small margin between the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) and the estimated exposure may indicate a health risk where maximum inclusion rates are applied. Due to the absence of adequate data, the risk for ruminants, horses, fish and rabbits could not be assessed.

AB - Erucic acid is the trivial name of the fatty acid cis-13-docosenoic acid and occurs at high concentrations mainly in the seeds of species of the Brassicaceae (e.g. rape seed or mustard seed). The European Commission requested EFSA to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of erucic acid in feed and food. For most humans, the main contributor to dietary exposure to erucic acid was the food group ‘Fine bakery wares’. In ‘Infants’, ‘Food for infants and small children’ was the main contributor to exposure. The heart is the principal target organ for toxic effects after exposure. Myocardial lipidosis was identified as the critical effect for chronic exposure to erucic acid. This effect is reversible and transient during prolonged exposure. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 7 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for erucic acid was established, based on a no observed adverse effect level of 0.7 g/kg bw per day for lipidosis in young rats and newborn piglets. Mean chronic exposure of the different groups of the population did not exceed the TDI. The 95th percentile dietary exposure level was highest in infants and other children, ranging from 1.3 to 7.4 mg/kg bw per day; the higher level being at the level of the TDI. This may indicate a risk for young individuals with high erucic acid exposure. In pigs, levels of erucic acid are unlikely to represent a health concern. However, for poultry, the small margin between the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) and the estimated exposure may indicate a health risk where maximum inclusion rates are applied. Due to the absence of adequate data, the risk for ruminants, horses, fish and rabbits could not be assessed.

KW - erucic acid

KW - rape seed

KW - rapeseed oil

KW - risk assessment

KW - food

KW - feed

KW - cis-13-docosenoic acid

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