Evaluating possible intended and unintended consequences of the implementation of alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in Scotland: a natural experiment protocol

Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Clare Beeston, Andrew Millard (Corresponding Author), Ross Forsyth, Paolo Deluca, Colin Drummond, Douglas Eadie, Lesley Graham, Shona Hilton, Anne Ludbrook, Gerry McCartney, Thomas Phillips, Martine Stead, Allison Ford, Lyndal Bond, Alastair H Leyland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Scotland is the first country to carry out a national implementation of minimum unit pricing (MUP) for alcohol. MUP aims to reduce alcohol-related harms, which are high in Scotland compared with Western Europe, and to improve health equalities. MUP is a minimum retail price per unit of alcohol. That approach targets high-risk alcohol users. This work is key to a wider evaluation that will determine whether MUP continues. There are three study components.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Component 1 sampled an estimated 2800 interviewees at a baseline and each of two follow-ups from four Emergency Departments in Scotland and Northern England. Research nurses administered a standardised survey to assess alcohol consumption and the proportion of attendances that were alcohol-related.Component 2 covered six Sexual Health Clinics with similar timings and country allocation. A self-completion survey gathered information on potential unintended effects of MUP on alcohol source and drug use.Using a natural experiment design and repeated cross-sectional audit, difference between Scotland (intervention) and North England (control) will be tested for outcomes using regression adjusting for differences at baseline. Differential impacts by age, gender and socioeconomic position will be investigated.Component 3 used focus groups with young people and heavy drinkers and interviews with stakeholders before and after MUP implementation. The focus groups will allow exploration of attitudes, experiences and behaviours and the potential mechanisms by which impacts arise. The interviews will help characterise the implementation process.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study components 1 and 2 have been ethically approved by the NHS, and component 3 by the University of Stirling. Dissemination plans include peer-reviewed journal articles, presentations, policy maker briefings and, in view of high public interest and the high political profile of this flagship policy, communication with the public via media engagement and plain language summaries.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN16039407; Pre-results.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere028482
JournalBMJ Open
Volume9
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jun 2019

Fingerprint

Scotland
Alcohols
Costs and Cost Analysis
Focus Groups
England
Interviews
Reproductive Health
Administrative Personnel
Alcohol Drinking
Hospital Emergency Service
Language
Nurses
Communication
Health
Research
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • alcohol
  • evaluation
  • policy
  • pricing

Cite this

Evaluating possible intended and unintended consequences of the implementation of alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in Scotland : a natural experiment protocol. / Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Beeston, Clare; Millard, Andrew (Corresponding Author); Forsyth, Ross; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Eadie, Douglas; Graham, Lesley; Hilton, Shona; Ludbrook, Anne; McCartney, Gerry; Phillips, Thomas; Stead, Martine; Ford, Allison; Bond, Lyndal; Leyland, Alastair H.

In: BMJ Open, Vol. 9, No. 6, e028482, 20.06.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Katikireddi, SV, Beeston, C, Millard, A, Forsyth, R, Deluca, P, Drummond, C, Eadie, D, Graham, L, Hilton, S, Ludbrook, A, McCartney, G, Phillips, T, Stead, M, Ford, A, Bond, L & Leyland, AH 2019, 'Evaluating possible intended and unintended consequences of the implementation of alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in Scotland: a natural experiment protocol', BMJ Open, vol. 9, no. 6, e028482. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028482
Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal ; Beeston, Clare ; Millard, Andrew ; Forsyth, Ross ; Deluca, Paolo ; Drummond, Colin ; Eadie, Douglas ; Graham, Lesley ; Hilton, Shona ; Ludbrook, Anne ; McCartney, Gerry ; Phillips, Thomas ; Stead, Martine ; Ford, Allison ; Bond, Lyndal ; Leyland, Alastair H. / Evaluating possible intended and unintended consequences of the implementation of alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in Scotland : a natural experiment protocol. In: BMJ Open. 2019 ; Vol. 9, No. 6.
@article{25df33f4441d4a2287412f880af8c79d,
title = "Evaluating possible intended and unintended consequences of the implementation of alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in Scotland: a natural experiment protocol",
abstract = "INTRODUCTION: Scotland is the first country to carry out a national implementation of minimum unit pricing (MUP) for alcohol. MUP aims to reduce alcohol-related harms, which are high in Scotland compared with Western Europe, and to improve health equalities. MUP is a minimum retail price per unit of alcohol. That approach targets high-risk alcohol users. This work is key to a wider evaluation that will determine whether MUP continues. There are three study components.METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Component 1 sampled an estimated 2800 interviewees at a baseline and each of two follow-ups from four Emergency Departments in Scotland and Northern England. Research nurses administered a standardised survey to assess alcohol consumption and the proportion of attendances that were alcohol-related.Component 2 covered six Sexual Health Clinics with similar timings and country allocation. A self-completion survey gathered information on potential unintended effects of MUP on alcohol source and drug use.Using a natural experiment design and repeated cross-sectional audit, difference between Scotland (intervention) and North England (control) will be tested for outcomes using regression adjusting for differences at baseline. Differential impacts by age, gender and socioeconomic position will be investigated.Component 3 used focus groups with young people and heavy drinkers and interviews with stakeholders before and after MUP implementation. The focus groups will allow exploration of attitudes, experiences and behaviours and the potential mechanisms by which impacts arise. The interviews will help characterise the implementation process.ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study components 1 and 2 have been ethically approved by the NHS, and component 3 by the University of Stirling. Dissemination plans include peer-reviewed journal articles, presentations, policy maker briefings and, in view of high public interest and the high political profile of this flagship policy, communication with the public via media engagement and plain language summaries.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN16039407; Pre-results.",
keywords = "alcohol, evaluation, policy, pricing",
author = "Katikireddi, {Srinivasa Vittal} and Clare Beeston and Andrew Millard and Ross Forsyth and Paolo Deluca and Colin Drummond and Douglas Eadie and Lesley Graham and Shona Hilton and Anne Ludbrook and Gerry McCartney and Thomas Phillips and Martine Stead and Allison Ford and Lyndal Bond and Leyland, {Alastair H}",
note = "{\circledC} Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028482",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
journal = "BMJ Open",
issn = "2044-6055",
publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluating possible intended and unintended consequences of the implementation of alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in Scotland

T2 - a natural experiment protocol

AU - Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

AU - Beeston, Clare

AU - Millard, Andrew

AU - Forsyth, Ross

AU - Deluca, Paolo

AU - Drummond, Colin

AU - Eadie, Douglas

AU - Graham, Lesley

AU - Hilton, Shona

AU - Ludbrook, Anne

AU - McCartney, Gerry

AU - Phillips, Thomas

AU - Stead, Martine

AU - Ford, Allison

AU - Bond, Lyndal

AU - Leyland, Alastair H

N1 - © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.

PY - 2019/6/20

Y1 - 2019/6/20

N2 - INTRODUCTION: Scotland is the first country to carry out a national implementation of minimum unit pricing (MUP) for alcohol. MUP aims to reduce alcohol-related harms, which are high in Scotland compared with Western Europe, and to improve health equalities. MUP is a minimum retail price per unit of alcohol. That approach targets high-risk alcohol users. This work is key to a wider evaluation that will determine whether MUP continues. There are three study components.METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Component 1 sampled an estimated 2800 interviewees at a baseline and each of two follow-ups from four Emergency Departments in Scotland and Northern England. Research nurses administered a standardised survey to assess alcohol consumption and the proportion of attendances that were alcohol-related.Component 2 covered six Sexual Health Clinics with similar timings and country allocation. A self-completion survey gathered information on potential unintended effects of MUP on alcohol source and drug use.Using a natural experiment design and repeated cross-sectional audit, difference between Scotland (intervention) and North England (control) will be tested for outcomes using regression adjusting for differences at baseline. Differential impacts by age, gender and socioeconomic position will be investigated.Component 3 used focus groups with young people and heavy drinkers and interviews with stakeholders before and after MUP implementation. The focus groups will allow exploration of attitudes, experiences and behaviours and the potential mechanisms by which impacts arise. The interviews will help characterise the implementation process.ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study components 1 and 2 have been ethically approved by the NHS, and component 3 by the University of Stirling. Dissemination plans include peer-reviewed journal articles, presentations, policy maker briefings and, in view of high public interest and the high political profile of this flagship policy, communication with the public via media engagement and plain language summaries.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN16039407; Pre-results.

AB - INTRODUCTION: Scotland is the first country to carry out a national implementation of minimum unit pricing (MUP) for alcohol. MUP aims to reduce alcohol-related harms, which are high in Scotland compared with Western Europe, and to improve health equalities. MUP is a minimum retail price per unit of alcohol. That approach targets high-risk alcohol users. This work is key to a wider evaluation that will determine whether MUP continues. There are three study components.METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Component 1 sampled an estimated 2800 interviewees at a baseline and each of two follow-ups from four Emergency Departments in Scotland and Northern England. Research nurses administered a standardised survey to assess alcohol consumption and the proportion of attendances that were alcohol-related.Component 2 covered six Sexual Health Clinics with similar timings and country allocation. A self-completion survey gathered information on potential unintended effects of MUP on alcohol source and drug use.Using a natural experiment design and repeated cross-sectional audit, difference between Scotland (intervention) and North England (control) will be tested for outcomes using regression adjusting for differences at baseline. Differential impacts by age, gender and socioeconomic position will be investigated.Component 3 used focus groups with young people and heavy drinkers and interviews with stakeholders before and after MUP implementation. The focus groups will allow exploration of attitudes, experiences and behaviours and the potential mechanisms by which impacts arise. The interviews will help characterise the implementation process.ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study components 1 and 2 have been ethically approved by the NHS, and component 3 by the University of Stirling. Dissemination plans include peer-reviewed journal articles, presentations, policy maker briefings and, in view of high public interest and the high political profile of this flagship policy, communication with the public via media engagement and plain language summaries.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN16039407; Pre-results.

KW - alcohol

KW - evaluation

KW - policy

KW - pricing

UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/evaluating-possible-intended-unintended-consequences-implementation-alcohol-minimum-unit-pricing-mup

U2 - 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028482

DO - 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028482

M3 - Article

C2 - 31221890

VL - 9

JO - BMJ Open

JF - BMJ Open

SN - 2044-6055

IS - 6

M1 - e028482

ER -