Evaluation of adnexal masses with three-dimensional ultrasonography

Peggy M.A.J. Geomini*, Kirsten B. Kluivers, Evelien Moret, Gérard L. Bremer, Roy F.P.M. Kruitwagen, Ben Willem J. Mol

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether three-dimensional ultrasonography and three-dimensional power Doppler investigation can contribute to the differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian masses. METHODS: Women scheduled for surgical treatment of an adnexal mass were included in a multicenter prospective study. All women underwent two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonographic examination in the week before surgery. All parameters were compared in women with benign tumors, borderline tumors, and malignant tumors using receiver operating characteristic analysis and likelihood ratios. RESULTS: We included 181 women; 144 had a benign mass, 26 had a malignancy, and 11 had a borderline tumor. At three-dimensional ultrasonography, the most striking difference was found in the presence of central vessels in an adnexal mass. Central vessels assessed by three-dimensional ultrasonography were present in 15% (21 of 144) of the benign masses, 69% (18 of 26) of the malignant masses, and 27% (3 of 11) of the masses of borderline malignancy. The likelihood ratios for presence of central vessels for a mass being malignant and/or borderline was 4.9 (95% confidence interval 2.1-12). Mean gray index and flow index were also significantly different between the groups, but other features were not. CONCLUSION: The central localization of vessels in an adnexal mass, as observed by three-dimensional ultrasonography, the mean gray index, and the flow index are potentially important parameters for distinguishing benign from malignant adnexal masses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1167-1175
Number of pages9
JournalObstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2006


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