Evaluation of endocervical, first-void urine and self-administered vulval swabs for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in a miscarriage population

Susan Logan, J. Browne, Hamish McKenzie, Alexander Allan Templeton, Siladitya Bhattacharya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Objective To compare, in parallel, different approaches of opportunistically screening women with bleeding in early pregnancy for Chlamydia trachomatis.

Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Early pregnancy assessment unit, University hospital, Scotland, UK.

Population Over 200 consecutive women admitted to an early pregnancy assessment unit were recruited. All had a positive pregnancy test, a history of vaginal bleeding and were less than 24 weeks of gestation. Women with recent antibiotic use, heavy vaginal bleeding and cervical shock excluded.

Methods Each women provided two or more of the following specimens: a self-administered vulval swab, first-void urine and/or endocervical swab. Following screening, each completed a semi-structured questionnaire assessing the acceptability of each method undertaken.

Main outcome measure Subjective rating of the screening methods; prevalence; method performance, including proportion requiring repeat testing.

Results The majority accepted screening, with moderate prevalence rates (95% CI) 3.9% ( 2.0 - 7.4%) identified. All positive women were less than 30 years of age. Parallel screening exposed the potential of reduced test performance with urine. Non-invasive sampling was more acceptable, but more likely to require repeat testing.

Conclusion Both acceptability and the effect of bleeding on test performance need further assessment before a particular specimen can be recommended for screening this population of women for C. trachomatis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-106
Number of pages3
JournalBJOG-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Publication statusPublished - 2005




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