Evaluation of the health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in foods other than raw apricot kernels

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

In 2016, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) published a scientific opinion on the acute health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides (CNGs) in raw apricot kernels in which an acute reference dose (ARfD) of 20 μg/kg body weight (bw) was established for cyanide (CN). In the present opinion, the CONTAM Panel concluded that this ARfD is applicable for acute effects of CN regardless the dietary source. To account for differences in cyanide bioavailability after ingestion of certain food items, specific factors were used. Estimated mean acute dietary exposures to cyanide from foods containing CNGs did not exceed the ARfD in any age group. At the 95th percentile, the ARfD was exceeded up to about 2.5-fold in some surveys for children and adolescent age groups. The main contributors to exposures were biscuits, juice or nectar and pastries and cakes that could potentially contain CNGs. Taking into account the conservatism in the exposure assessment and in derivation of the ARfD, it is unlikely that this estimated exceedance would result in adverse effects. The limited data from animal and human studies do not allow the derivation of a chronic health-based guidance value (HBGV) for cyanide, and thus, chronic risks could not be assessed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere05662
JournalEFSA Journal
Volume17
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Apr 2019

Fingerprint

cyanogenic glycosides
Cyanides
cyanides
apricots
Health
dosage
seeds
Age Groups
Plant Nectar
pastries
Food
exposure assessment
Food Chain
biscuits
dietary exposure
acute effects
food contamination
Politics
food chain
nectar

Keywords

  • cyanide
  • cyanogenic glycosides
  • health-based guidance values
  • risk assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Food Science
  • Microbiology
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary (miscalleneous)
  • Plant Science

Cite this

Evaluation of the health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in foods other than raw apricot kernels. / EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM).

In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4, e05662, 11.04.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). / Evaluation of the health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in foods other than raw apricot kernels. In: EFSA Journal. 2019 ; Vol. 17, No. 4.
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abstract = "In 2016, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) published a scientific opinion on the acute health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides (CNGs) in raw apricot kernels in which an acute reference dose (ARfD) of 20 μg/kg body weight (bw) was established for cyanide (CN). In the present opinion, the CONTAM Panel concluded that this ARfD is applicable for acute effects of CN regardless the dietary source. To account for differences in cyanide bioavailability after ingestion of certain food items, specific factors were used. Estimated mean acute dietary exposures to cyanide from foods containing CNGs did not exceed the ARfD in any age group. At the 95th percentile, the ARfD was exceeded up to about 2.5-fold in some surveys for children and adolescent age groups. The main contributors to exposures were biscuits, juice or nectar and pastries and cakes that could potentially contain CNGs. Taking into account the conservatism in the exposure assessment and in derivation of the ARfD, it is unlikely that this estimated exceedance would result in adverse effects. The limited data from animal and human studies do not allow the derivation of a chronic health-based guidance value (HBGV) for cyanide, and thus, chronic risks could not be assessed.",
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