Exploring inclusive pedagogy

Lani Florian, Kristine Black-Hawkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

350 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports on a study designed to examine teachers' craft knowledge of their practice of ‘inclusion’ in terms of what they do, why and how. The research approach offers an important alternative to studies of students with ‘additional needs’ and the search to articulate the specialist knowledge and skill required to teach them. Through classroom observations and interviews with 11 teachers of students across the full age range in two Scottish primary schools, we investigated how teachers make meaning of the concept of inclusion in their practice by exploring theoretical assumptions drawn from the literature about inclusive pedagogy. The analysis enabled us to identify practical examples of inclusive pedagogy that met the standard of extending what is generally available to everybody, as opposed to providing for all by differentiating for some. Examples of the inclusive pedagogical approach are provided.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)813-828
Number of pages16
JournalBritish Educational Research Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jul 2010


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