A simple underwater noise model suitable for use with explosive severance of well conductors and piles during the decommissioning of oil and gas subsea structures is introduced and evaluated against data from five projects in the US. This study focuses on a novel model for the determination of sound exposure levels. The model has been developed to enable determination of impact areas for marine mammals and fish. Simulated received underwater sound exposure levels were significantly correlated with measurements for all scenarios. The maximum total error achieved between simulations and measurements was 2.6%, suggesting that predictions are accurate to within 3% of the average measurement. A low relative bias was observed in the simulations when compared to measured values, suggesting only a small systematic underestimate (≤0.5% of average measurement) for most severance operations and a small overestimate (0.14%) for open water blasts.
|Number of pages||21|
|Publication status||Published - 18 Oct 2021|
- underwater noise modelling
- sound exposure level
- marine mammals