Extracellular polymeric substances

quantification and use in erosion experiments

R. G. Perkins, D. M. Paterson, Hongyue Sun, John Watson, Michael Antony Player

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is a generic term often applied to high molecular weight polymers implicated in the biostabilisation of natural sediments. Quantitative analysis of in situ EPS production rates and sediment contents has usually involved extraction of EPS in saline media prior to precipitation in alcohol and quantification against a glucose standard (phenol-sulphuric acid assay). Extracted and synthetic EPS has also been used to create engineered sediments for erosion experiments. This study investigated two steps in the EPS extraction procedure, saline extraction and alcohol precipitation. Comparisons of the effects of different extracted polymers were made in sediment erosion experiments using engineered sediments. Sediment EPS content decreased as the salinity of the extractant increased, with highest values obtained for extraction in fresh water. Potential errors were observed in the quantification of the soluble colloidal polymer fraction when divided into EPS and lower molecular weight polymers (LMW) as used in many studies. In erosion studies, 15 mg kg(-1) of alcohol (IMS) extracted EPS polymer (in 5 g kg(-1) IMS precipitate, equivalent to approximately 5g salt kg(-1) sediment dry weight) decreased the erosion threshold of cohesive sediments whereas 30 mg kg(-1) (in 10 g kg(-1) IMS precipitate, approximately 10 g salt kg(-1) sediment dry weight) had no effect compared to controls. This could be due to the influence of EPS on water content: low levels of EPS did not bind but prevented desiccation, lowering sediment stability against controls. At higher EPS content, binding effects balanced water content effects. Salt alone (at 10 g kg(-1)) slightly increased the erosion threshold after a 6-h desiccation period. In comparison, carbohydrates produced without alcohol precipitation (rotary evaporation) increased the erosion threshold at both 0.5 and 1.0 g EPS kg(-1) dry weight of sediment. It was concluded that the role of microphytobenthic polymers in biostabilisation of sediments is best determined through the study of natural intact sediment samples. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1623-1635
Number of pages13
JournalContinental Shelf Research
Volume24
Issue number15
Early online date20 Aug 2004
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2004

Keywords

  • EPS
  • extraction
  • quantification
  • sediment erosion
  • intertidal sediments
  • epipelic diatoms
  • benthic diatoms
  • exopolymer production
  • microphytobenthos
  • dynamics
  • erodibility
  • stabilization
  • stability
  • biology

Cite this

Extracellular polymeric substances : quantification and use in erosion experiments. / Perkins, R. G.; Paterson, D. M.; Sun, Hongyue; Watson, John; Player, Michael Antony.

In: Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 24, No. 15, 10.2004, p. 1623-1635.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{22535635e2934fdcad1679b049230298,
title = "Extracellular polymeric substances: quantification and use in erosion experiments",
abstract = "Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is a generic term often applied to high molecular weight polymers implicated in the biostabilisation of natural sediments. Quantitative analysis of in situ EPS production rates and sediment contents has usually involved extraction of EPS in saline media prior to precipitation in alcohol and quantification against a glucose standard (phenol-sulphuric acid assay). Extracted and synthetic EPS has also been used to create engineered sediments for erosion experiments. This study investigated two steps in the EPS extraction procedure, saline extraction and alcohol precipitation. Comparisons of the effects of different extracted polymers were made in sediment erosion experiments using engineered sediments. Sediment EPS content decreased as the salinity of the extractant increased, with highest values obtained for extraction in fresh water. Potential errors were observed in the quantification of the soluble colloidal polymer fraction when divided into EPS and lower molecular weight polymers (LMW) as used in many studies. In erosion studies, 15 mg kg(-1) of alcohol (IMS) extracted EPS polymer (in 5 g kg(-1) IMS precipitate, equivalent to approximately 5g salt kg(-1) sediment dry weight) decreased the erosion threshold of cohesive sediments whereas 30 mg kg(-1) (in 10 g kg(-1) IMS precipitate, approximately 10 g salt kg(-1) sediment dry weight) had no effect compared to controls. This could be due to the influence of EPS on water content: low levels of EPS did not bind but prevented desiccation, lowering sediment stability against controls. At higher EPS content, binding effects balanced water content effects. Salt alone (at 10 g kg(-1)) slightly increased the erosion threshold after a 6-h desiccation period. In comparison, carbohydrates produced without alcohol precipitation (rotary evaporation) increased the erosion threshold at both 0.5 and 1.0 g EPS kg(-1) dry weight of sediment. It was concluded that the role of microphytobenthic polymers in biostabilisation of sediments is best determined through the study of natural intact sediment samples. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "EPS, extraction, quantification, sediment erosion, intertidal sediments, epipelic diatoms, benthic diatoms, exopolymer production, microphytobenthos, dynamics, erodibility, stabilization, stability, biology",
author = "Perkins, {R. G.} and Paterson, {D. M.} and Hongyue Sun and John Watson and Player, {Michael Antony}",
year = "2004",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1016/j.csr.2004.06.001",
language = "English",
volume = "24",
pages = "1623--1635",
journal = "Continental Shelf Research",
issn = "0278-4343",
publisher = "PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD",
number = "15",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Extracellular polymeric substances

T2 - quantification and use in erosion experiments

AU - Perkins, R. G.

AU - Paterson, D. M.

AU - Sun, Hongyue

AU - Watson, John

AU - Player, Michael Antony

PY - 2004/10

Y1 - 2004/10

N2 - Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is a generic term often applied to high molecular weight polymers implicated in the biostabilisation of natural sediments. Quantitative analysis of in situ EPS production rates and sediment contents has usually involved extraction of EPS in saline media prior to precipitation in alcohol and quantification against a glucose standard (phenol-sulphuric acid assay). Extracted and synthetic EPS has also been used to create engineered sediments for erosion experiments. This study investigated two steps in the EPS extraction procedure, saline extraction and alcohol precipitation. Comparisons of the effects of different extracted polymers were made in sediment erosion experiments using engineered sediments. Sediment EPS content decreased as the salinity of the extractant increased, with highest values obtained for extraction in fresh water. Potential errors were observed in the quantification of the soluble colloidal polymer fraction when divided into EPS and lower molecular weight polymers (LMW) as used in many studies. In erosion studies, 15 mg kg(-1) of alcohol (IMS) extracted EPS polymer (in 5 g kg(-1) IMS precipitate, equivalent to approximately 5g salt kg(-1) sediment dry weight) decreased the erosion threshold of cohesive sediments whereas 30 mg kg(-1) (in 10 g kg(-1) IMS precipitate, approximately 10 g salt kg(-1) sediment dry weight) had no effect compared to controls. This could be due to the influence of EPS on water content: low levels of EPS did not bind but prevented desiccation, lowering sediment stability against controls. At higher EPS content, binding effects balanced water content effects. Salt alone (at 10 g kg(-1)) slightly increased the erosion threshold after a 6-h desiccation period. In comparison, carbohydrates produced without alcohol precipitation (rotary evaporation) increased the erosion threshold at both 0.5 and 1.0 g EPS kg(-1) dry weight of sediment. It was concluded that the role of microphytobenthic polymers in biostabilisation of sediments is best determined through the study of natural intact sediment samples. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

AB - Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is a generic term often applied to high molecular weight polymers implicated in the biostabilisation of natural sediments. Quantitative analysis of in situ EPS production rates and sediment contents has usually involved extraction of EPS in saline media prior to precipitation in alcohol and quantification against a glucose standard (phenol-sulphuric acid assay). Extracted and synthetic EPS has also been used to create engineered sediments for erosion experiments. This study investigated two steps in the EPS extraction procedure, saline extraction and alcohol precipitation. Comparisons of the effects of different extracted polymers were made in sediment erosion experiments using engineered sediments. Sediment EPS content decreased as the salinity of the extractant increased, with highest values obtained for extraction in fresh water. Potential errors were observed in the quantification of the soluble colloidal polymer fraction when divided into EPS and lower molecular weight polymers (LMW) as used in many studies. In erosion studies, 15 mg kg(-1) of alcohol (IMS) extracted EPS polymer (in 5 g kg(-1) IMS precipitate, equivalent to approximately 5g salt kg(-1) sediment dry weight) decreased the erosion threshold of cohesive sediments whereas 30 mg kg(-1) (in 10 g kg(-1) IMS precipitate, approximately 10 g salt kg(-1) sediment dry weight) had no effect compared to controls. This could be due to the influence of EPS on water content: low levels of EPS did not bind but prevented desiccation, lowering sediment stability against controls. At higher EPS content, binding effects balanced water content effects. Salt alone (at 10 g kg(-1)) slightly increased the erosion threshold after a 6-h desiccation period. In comparison, carbohydrates produced without alcohol precipitation (rotary evaporation) increased the erosion threshold at both 0.5 and 1.0 g EPS kg(-1) dry weight of sediment. It was concluded that the role of microphytobenthic polymers in biostabilisation of sediments is best determined through the study of natural intact sediment samples. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KW - EPS

KW - extraction

KW - quantification

KW - sediment erosion

KW - intertidal sediments

KW - epipelic diatoms

KW - benthic diatoms

KW - exopolymer production

KW - microphytobenthos

KW - dynamics

KW - erodibility

KW - stabilization

KW - stability

KW - biology

U2 - 10.1016/j.csr.2004.06.001

DO - 10.1016/j.csr.2004.06.001

M3 - Article

VL - 24

SP - 1623

EP - 1635

JO - Continental Shelf Research

JF - Continental Shelf Research

SN - 0278-4343

IS - 15

ER -