Extrafine Beclometasone Dipropionate/Formoterol Fumarate vs Double Bronchodilation Therapy in Patients with COPD: A Historical Real-World Non-Inferiority Study

Jaco Voorham, Simonetta Baldi, Luigi Santoro, Marjan Kerkhof, Marco Contoli, Huib AM Kerstjens, José Luis Lopez-Campos, Nicolas Roche, Dave Singh, Claus F Vogelmeier, David B Price* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

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Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the non-inferiority of initiating extrafine beclometasone dipropionate/formoterol fumarate (BDP/FF) versus double bronchodilation (long-acting beta-agonists [LABA]/long-acting muscarinic antagonists [LAMA]) among patients with a history of COPD exacerbations. Patients and methods: A historical cohort study was conducted using data from the UK’s Optimum Patient Care Research Database. Patients with COPD ⩾40 years at diagnosis were included if they initiated extrafine BDP/FF or any LABA/LAMA double therapy as a step-up from no maintenance therapy or monotherapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), LAMA, or LABA and a history of ≥2 moderate/severe exacerbations in the previous two years. The primary outcome was exacerbation rate from therapy initiation until a relevant therapy change or end of follow-up. Secondary outcomes included rate of acute respiratory events, acute oral corticosteroids (OCS) courses, and antibiotic prescriptions with lower respiratory indication, modified Medical Research Council score (mMRC) ≥2, and time to first pneumonia diagnosis. The non59 inferiority boundary was set at a relative difference of 15% on the ratio scale. Five potential treatment effect modifiers were investigated. Results: A total of 1,735 patients initiated extrafine BDP/FF and 2,450 patients initiated LABA/LAMA. The mean age was 70 years, 51% were male, 41% current smokers, and 85% had FEV1 <80% predicted. Extrafine BDP/FF showed non64 inferiority to LABA/LAMA for rate of exacerbations (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 65 1.01 [95%CI 0.94-1.09]), acute respiratory events (IRR = 0.98 [0.92-1.04]), acute 20 OCS courses (IRR = 1.01 [0.91-1.11]), and antibiotic prescriptions (IRR = 0.99 67 [0.90-1.09]), but not for mMRC (OR = 0.93 [0.69-1.27]) or risk of pneumonia (HR= 0.50 [0.14-1.73]). None of the a priori defined effect modifier candidates affected the comparative effectiveness. Conclusions: This study found that stepping up to extrafine BDP/FF from no maintenance or monotherapy was not inferior to stepping up to double bronchodilation therapy in patients with history of exacerbations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2739—2750
Number of pages12
JournalInternational journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 29 Oct 2020


  • real-world
  • electronic health records
  • observational
  • comparative effectiveness
  • heterogeneity
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Heterogeneity
  • Comparative effectiveness
  • Observational
  • Real-world
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Electronic health records


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