Femoral geometry as a risk factor for osteoporotic hip fracture in men and women

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)


Osteoporotic hip fracture is associated with high mortality and morbidity and often results in a loss of mobility and independence. Osteoporosis is diagnosed by measuring Bone Mineral Density (BMD), a measure of the amount of mineral in a bone. Although BMD continues to serve well it does not fully account for bone strength and only partially accounts for the risk of hip fracture. The shape and structure of the proximal femur also help to determine how forces act in the hip in a fall and their measurement can aid the prediction of hip fracture. This review examines the link between simple geometrical measures of the proximal femur and hip fracture, or bone strength. It will explore how they relate to each other and to anthropometric factors such as sex, height, weight and age. Limitations in these measures will be identified and new methods of analysis reviewed that encompass many different aspects of the shape of the femur. These new methods show great promise for improving the prediction of fracture risk in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1275-1286
Number of pages12
JournalMedical Engineering & Physics
Issue number10
Early online date31 Oct 2008
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2008


  • Computer Simulation
  • Female
  • Femoral Fractures
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Biological Models
  • Osteoporosis
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Bone-Mineral Density
  • X-Ray absorptiometry
  • Finite-element models
  • Proximal femur geometry
  • Active shape models
  • Axis length
  • Postmenopausal women
  • Neck geometry
  • Trochanteric fractures
  • Hip
  • Fracture
  • Geometry
  • Shape
  • Imaging
  • Active Shape Modelling


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