Fish oil supplemented for 9 months does not improve glycaemic control or insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose regulation

a parallel randomised controlled trial

Louise F Clark, M C Thivierge, Claire A Kidd, Susan C McGeoch, Prakash Abraham, Donald W M Pearson, Graham Horgan, Grietje Holtrop, Frank Thies, Gerald E Lobley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on glycaemic control are unclear, and positive effects may occur only when the phospholipid content of tissue membranes exceeds 14% as n-3 PUFA. Subjects (n 36, thirty-three completed) were paired based on metabolic parameters and allocated into a parallel double-blind randomised trial with one of each pair offered daily either 6 g of FO (3·9 g n-3 PUFA) or 6 g of maize oil (MO) for 9 months. Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic-euaminoacidaemic (HIEGEAA) clamps (with [6,6 2H2 glucose]) were performed at the start and end of the intervention. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and whole-body protein turnover (WBPT) were each measured after an overnight fast. The primary outcome involved the effect of oil type on insulin sensitivity related to glycaemic control. The secondary outcome involved the effect of oil type on WBPT. Subjects on FO (n 16) had increased erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations >14%, whereas subjects on MO (n 17) had unaltered n-3 PUFA concentrations at 9%. Type of oil had no effect on fasting EGP, insulin sensitivity or total glucose disposal during the HIEGEAA clamp. In contrast, under insulin-stimulated conditions, total protein disposal (P=0·007) and endogenous WBPT (P=0·001) were both increased with FO. In an associated pilot study (n 4, three completed), although n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes increased to >14% with the FO supplement, the enrichment in muscle membranes remained lower (8%; P<0·001). In conclusion, long-term supplementation with FO, at amounts near the safety limits set by regulatory authorities in Europe and the USA, did not alter glycaemic control but did have an impact on WBPT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-86
Number of pages12
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume115
Issue number1
Early online date5 Nov 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2016

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Fish Oils
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Insulin Resistance
Randomized Controlled Trials
Glucose
Oils
Glucose Clamp Technique
Corn Oil
Proteins
Membranes
Erythrocyte Membrane
Fasting
Phospholipids
Erythrocytes
Insulin
Safety
Muscles

Keywords

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Erythrocytes
  • Fasting
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Female
  • Fish Oils
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Glucose Clamp Technique
  • Humans
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proteins
  • Journal Article
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Cite this

Fish oil supplemented for 9 months does not improve glycaemic control or insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose regulation : a parallel randomised controlled trial. / Clark, Louise F; Thivierge, M C; Kidd, Claire A; McGeoch, Susan C; Abraham, Prakash; Pearson, Donald W M; Horgan, Graham; Holtrop, Grietje; Thies, Frank; Lobley, Gerald E.

In: British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 115, No. 1, 14.01.2016, p. 75-86.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Clark, Louise F ; Thivierge, M C ; Kidd, Claire A ; McGeoch, Susan C ; Abraham, Prakash ; Pearson, Donald W M ; Horgan, Graham ; Holtrop, Grietje ; Thies, Frank ; Lobley, Gerald E. / Fish oil supplemented for 9 months does not improve glycaemic control or insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose regulation : a parallel randomised controlled trial. In: British Journal of Nutrition. 2016 ; Vol. 115, No. 1. pp. 75-86.
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abstract = "The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on glycaemic control are unclear, and positive effects may occur only when the phospholipid content of tissue membranes exceeds 14{\%} as n-3 PUFA. Subjects (n 36, thirty-three completed) were paired based on metabolic parameters and allocated into a parallel double-blind randomised trial with one of each pair offered daily either 6 g of FO (3·9 g n-3 PUFA) or 6 g of maize oil (MO) for 9 months. Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic-euaminoacidaemic (HIEGEAA) clamps (with [6,6 2H2 glucose]) were performed at the start and end of the intervention. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and whole-body protein turnover (WBPT) were each measured after an overnight fast. The primary outcome involved the effect of oil type on insulin sensitivity related to glycaemic control. The secondary outcome involved the effect of oil type on WBPT. Subjects on FO (n 16) had increased erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations >14{\%}, whereas subjects on MO (n 17) had unaltered n-3 PUFA concentrations at 9{\%}. Type of oil had no effect on fasting EGP, insulin sensitivity or total glucose disposal during the HIEGEAA clamp. In contrast, under insulin-stimulated conditions, total protein disposal (P=0·007) and endogenous WBPT (P=0·001) were both increased with FO. In an associated pilot study (n 4, three completed), although n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes increased to >14{\%} with the FO supplement, the enrichment in muscle membranes remained lower (8{\%}; P<0·001). In conclusion, long-term supplementation with FO, at amounts near the safety limits set by regulatory authorities in Europe and the USA, did not alter glycaemic control but did have an impact on WBPT.",
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author = "Clark, {Louise F} and Thivierge, {M C} and Kidd, {Claire A} and McGeoch, {Susan C} and Prakash Abraham and Pearson, {Donald W M} and Graham Horgan and Grietje Holtrop and Frank Thies and Lobley, {Gerald E}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Fish oil supplemented for 9 months does not improve glycaemic control or insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose regulation

T2 - a parallel randomised controlled trial

AU - Clark, Louise F

AU - Thivierge, M C

AU - Kidd, Claire A

AU - McGeoch, Susan C

AU - Abraham, Prakash

AU - Pearson, Donald W M

AU - Horgan, Graham

AU - Holtrop, Grietje

AU - Thies, Frank

AU - Lobley, Gerald E

N1 - This work was funded as part of the core grant from Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division of the Scottish Government to the Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen and to Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland, Aberdeen. Neither the funding body nor EPAX AS had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review and approval of the manuscript.

PY - 2016/1/14

Y1 - 2016/1/14

N2 - The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on glycaemic control are unclear, and positive effects may occur only when the phospholipid content of tissue membranes exceeds 14% as n-3 PUFA. Subjects (n 36, thirty-three completed) were paired based on metabolic parameters and allocated into a parallel double-blind randomised trial with one of each pair offered daily either 6 g of FO (3·9 g n-3 PUFA) or 6 g of maize oil (MO) for 9 months. Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic-euaminoacidaemic (HIEGEAA) clamps (with [6,6 2H2 glucose]) were performed at the start and end of the intervention. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and whole-body protein turnover (WBPT) were each measured after an overnight fast. The primary outcome involved the effect of oil type on insulin sensitivity related to glycaemic control. The secondary outcome involved the effect of oil type on WBPT. Subjects on FO (n 16) had increased erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations >14%, whereas subjects on MO (n 17) had unaltered n-3 PUFA concentrations at 9%. Type of oil had no effect on fasting EGP, insulin sensitivity or total glucose disposal during the HIEGEAA clamp. In contrast, under insulin-stimulated conditions, total protein disposal (P=0·007) and endogenous WBPT (P=0·001) were both increased with FO. In an associated pilot study (n 4, three completed), although n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes increased to >14% with the FO supplement, the enrichment in muscle membranes remained lower (8%; P<0·001). In conclusion, long-term supplementation with FO, at amounts near the safety limits set by regulatory authorities in Europe and the USA, did not alter glycaemic control but did have an impact on WBPT.

AB - The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on glycaemic control are unclear, and positive effects may occur only when the phospholipid content of tissue membranes exceeds 14% as n-3 PUFA. Subjects (n 36, thirty-three completed) were paired based on metabolic parameters and allocated into a parallel double-blind randomised trial with one of each pair offered daily either 6 g of FO (3·9 g n-3 PUFA) or 6 g of maize oil (MO) for 9 months. Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic-euaminoacidaemic (HIEGEAA) clamps (with [6,6 2H2 glucose]) were performed at the start and end of the intervention. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and whole-body protein turnover (WBPT) were each measured after an overnight fast. The primary outcome involved the effect of oil type on insulin sensitivity related to glycaemic control. The secondary outcome involved the effect of oil type on WBPT. Subjects on FO (n 16) had increased erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations >14%, whereas subjects on MO (n 17) had unaltered n-3 PUFA concentrations at 9%. Type of oil had no effect on fasting EGP, insulin sensitivity or total glucose disposal during the HIEGEAA clamp. In contrast, under insulin-stimulated conditions, total protein disposal (P=0·007) and endogenous WBPT (P=0·001) were both increased with FO. In an associated pilot study (n 4, three completed), although n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes increased to >14% with the FO supplement, the enrichment in muscle membranes remained lower (8%; P<0·001). In conclusion, long-term supplementation with FO, at amounts near the safety limits set by regulatory authorities in Europe and the USA, did not alter glycaemic control but did have an impact on WBPT.

KW - Aged

KW - Blood Glucose

KW - Dietary Fats, Unsaturated

KW - Dietary Supplements

KW - Double-Blind Method

KW - Erythrocytes

KW - Fasting

KW - Fatty Acids, Omega-3

KW - Female

KW - Fish Oils

KW - Gluconeogenesis

KW - Glucose Clamp Technique

KW - Humans

KW - Insulin

KW - Insulin Resistance

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Proteins

KW - Journal Article

KW - Randomized Controlled Trial

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

U2 - 10.1017/S0007114515004274

DO - 10.1017/S0007114515004274

M3 - Article

VL - 115

SP - 75

EP - 86

JO - British Journal of Nutrition

JF - British Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0007-1145

IS - 1

ER -