The aim of this study was to examine the morphology, frequency, location and aetiology of osseous concavities (OC) in the mandibular condyle. The temporomandibular joints of 435 skeletonised individuals of known age, sex and ancestry were macroscopically examined for osseous concavities and signs of osteoarthritis. Descriptive statistics (χ2) were used to compare results. It was found that OCs were present in 17.5% of the sample and did not vary by sex or ancestry. Posteriorly positioned OCs accounted for 72% of all OCs, and the frequency of OCs decreased with increasing age in contrast to the pattern seen for osteoarthritis. It is concluded that OCs are either developmental defects related to the late maturity of the condyle, and/or a function of regressive remodelling with posterior displacement of the condyle.