Frictional resistance of three types of ceramic brackets

Claire L. Williams, Khaled Khalaf

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OBJECTIVES: To investigate the static frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface in two recently introduced bracket systems and compare them to conventional ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems. Three variables were considered including the bracket system, archwire type and archwire angulation.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four bracket systems were tested in vitro: Self ligating ceramic, ceramic with metal slot and module, conventional ceramic with module and conventional metal with module. A specially constructed jig and an Instron testing machine were used to measure the static frictional resistance for 0.014 inches round and 0.018 x 0.025 inches rectangular stainless steel wires at 0° and 7° angulations.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: static frictional force at the bracket/archwire interface; recorded and measured in units of force (Newtons).

RESULTS: Self ligating ceramic and metal slot ceramic bracket systems generated significantly less static frictional resistance than conventional ceramic bracket systems with the wire at both angulations (P < 0.05). Changing the wire from 0.014 round to 0.018 x 0.025 rectangular wire significantly increased frictional forces for metal slot ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems (P < 0.01). Increasing wire angulation significantly increased frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface for all four types of bracket systems tested (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional ceramic, self ligating ceramic and metal slot ceramic bracket systems should give improved clinical performance, matching that of conventional metal brackets.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Oral & Maxillofacial Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014



  • friction
  • ceramics
  • orthodontic brackets
  • corrective orthodontics
  • orthodontic wires

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