Both resource and rural economists have long been aware that complex relationships exist between rural economic development, on the one hand, and natural resources, on the other. These relationships can be both positive (rural areas with high natural amenities often have strong levels of economic growth) and negative (production activities may give rise to adverse environmental effects; areas with high natural resources levels often have low growth rates). Overlaying these human–nature interactions is another set of interdependencies between the welfare of rural residents and their urban counterparts. This book focuses on the challenges that these two sets of interactions present to researchers and rural development practitioners. It reviews current understanding, provides empirical insights, discusses the methodological barriers that have restricted research progress to date, and suggests topic areas and possible methodological developments for the future.