Furthering the understanding of silicate-substitution in a-tricalcium phosphate: An X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study

J. Duncan, S. Hayakawa, A. Osaka, J. F. MacDonald, J. V. Hanna, J. M. S. Skakle, I. R. Gibson

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Abstract

High-purity (SupT) and reagent-grade (ST), stoichiometric and silicate-containing a-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP: STO/SupTO and Si-TCP x = 0.10: ST10/SupT10) were prepared by solid-state reaction based on the substitution mechanism Ca-3(PO4)((2-x))(SiO4)(x). Samples were determined to be phase pure by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Rietveld analysis performed on the XRD data confirmed inclusion of Si in the alpha-TCP structure as determined by increases in unit cell parameters; particularly marked increases in the b-axis and beta-angle were observed. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) confirmed the presence of expected levels of Si in Si-TCP compositions as well as significant levels of impurities (Mg, Al and Fe) present in all ST samples; SupT samples showed both expected levels of Si and a high degree of purity. Phosphorus (P-31) magic-angle-spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) measurements revealed that the high-purity reagents used in the synthesis of SupTO can resolve the 12 expected peaks in the P-31 spectrum of a-TCP compared to the low-purity STO that showed significant spectral line broadening; line broadening was also observed with the inclusion of Si which is indicative of induced structural disorder. Silicon (Si-29) MAS NMR was also performed on both Si-TCP samples which revealed Q(0) species of Si with additional Si Q(1)/Q(2) species that may indicate a potential charge-balancing mechanism involving the inclusion of disilicate groups; additional Q(4) Si species were also observed, but only for ST10. Heating and cooling rates were briefly investigated by P-31 MAS NMR which showed no significant line broadening other than that associated with the emergence of beta-TCP which was only realised with the reagent-grade sample STO. This study provides an insight into the structural effects of Si-substitution in alpha-TCP and could provide a basis for understanding how substitution affects the physicochemical properties of the material. (C) 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1443-1450
Number of pages8
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Volume10
Issue number3
Early online date25 Nov 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014

Keywords

  • Ca3(PO4)2
  • silicon
  • bioceramics
  • Rietveld
  • Si-29
  • P-31
  • stabilized calcium phosphates
  • in-vivo behavior
  • hydroxyapatite granules
  • powder diffraction
  • alpha
  • NMR
  • temperature
  • ALPHA-CA3(PO4)2

Cite this

Furthering the understanding of silicate-substitution in a-tricalcium phosphate : An X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study. / Duncan, J.; Hayakawa, S.; Osaka, A.; MacDonald, J. F.; Hanna, J. V.; Skakle, J. M. S.; Gibson, I. R.

In: Acta Biomaterialia, Vol. 10, No. 3, 03.2014, p. 1443-1450.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "High-purity (SupT) and reagent-grade (ST), stoichiometric and silicate-containing a-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP: STO/SupTO and Si-TCP x = 0.10: ST10/SupT10) were prepared by solid-state reaction based on the substitution mechanism Ca-3(PO4)((2-x))(SiO4)(x). Samples were determined to be phase pure by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Rietveld analysis performed on the XRD data confirmed inclusion of Si in the alpha-TCP structure as determined by increases in unit cell parameters; particularly marked increases in the b-axis and beta-angle were observed. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) confirmed the presence of expected levels of Si in Si-TCP compositions as well as significant levels of impurities (Mg, Al and Fe) present in all ST samples; SupT samples showed both expected levels of Si and a high degree of purity. Phosphorus (P-31) magic-angle-spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) measurements revealed that the high-purity reagents used in the synthesis of SupTO can resolve the 12 expected peaks in the P-31 spectrum of a-TCP compared to the low-purity STO that showed significant spectral line broadening; line broadening was also observed with the inclusion of Si which is indicative of induced structural disorder. Silicon (Si-29) MAS NMR was also performed on both Si-TCP samples which revealed Q(0) species of Si with additional Si Q(1)/Q(2) species that may indicate a potential charge-balancing mechanism involving the inclusion of disilicate groups; additional Q(4) Si species were also observed, but only for ST10. Heating and cooling rates were briefly investigated by P-31 MAS NMR which showed no significant line broadening other than that associated with the emergence of beta-TCP which was only realised with the reagent-grade sample STO. This study provides an insight into the structural effects of Si-substitution in alpha-TCP and could provide a basis for understanding how substitution affects the physicochemical properties of the material. (C) 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
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T2 - An X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study

AU - Duncan, J.

AU - Hayakawa, S.

AU - Osaka, A.

AU - MacDonald, J. F.

AU - Hanna, J. V.

AU - Skakle, J. M. S.

AU - Gibson, I. R.

N1 - Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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N2 - High-purity (SupT) and reagent-grade (ST), stoichiometric and silicate-containing a-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP: STO/SupTO and Si-TCP x = 0.10: ST10/SupT10) were prepared by solid-state reaction based on the substitution mechanism Ca-3(PO4)((2-x))(SiO4)(x). Samples were determined to be phase pure by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Rietveld analysis performed on the XRD data confirmed inclusion of Si in the alpha-TCP structure as determined by increases in unit cell parameters; particularly marked increases in the b-axis and beta-angle were observed. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) confirmed the presence of expected levels of Si in Si-TCP compositions as well as significant levels of impurities (Mg, Al and Fe) present in all ST samples; SupT samples showed both expected levels of Si and a high degree of purity. Phosphorus (P-31) magic-angle-spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) measurements revealed that the high-purity reagents used in the synthesis of SupTO can resolve the 12 expected peaks in the P-31 spectrum of a-TCP compared to the low-purity STO that showed significant spectral line broadening; line broadening was also observed with the inclusion of Si which is indicative of induced structural disorder. Silicon (Si-29) MAS NMR was also performed on both Si-TCP samples which revealed Q(0) species of Si with additional Si Q(1)/Q(2) species that may indicate a potential charge-balancing mechanism involving the inclusion of disilicate groups; additional Q(4) Si species were also observed, but only for ST10. Heating and cooling rates were briefly investigated by P-31 MAS NMR which showed no significant line broadening other than that associated with the emergence of beta-TCP which was only realised with the reagent-grade sample STO. This study provides an insight into the structural effects of Si-substitution in alpha-TCP and could provide a basis for understanding how substitution affects the physicochemical properties of the material. (C) 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

AB - High-purity (SupT) and reagent-grade (ST), stoichiometric and silicate-containing a-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP: STO/SupTO and Si-TCP x = 0.10: ST10/SupT10) were prepared by solid-state reaction based on the substitution mechanism Ca-3(PO4)((2-x))(SiO4)(x). Samples were determined to be phase pure by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Rietveld analysis performed on the XRD data confirmed inclusion of Si in the alpha-TCP structure as determined by increases in unit cell parameters; particularly marked increases in the b-axis and beta-angle were observed. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) confirmed the presence of expected levels of Si in Si-TCP compositions as well as significant levels of impurities (Mg, Al and Fe) present in all ST samples; SupT samples showed both expected levels of Si and a high degree of purity. Phosphorus (P-31) magic-angle-spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) measurements revealed that the high-purity reagents used in the synthesis of SupTO can resolve the 12 expected peaks in the P-31 spectrum of a-TCP compared to the low-purity STO that showed significant spectral line broadening; line broadening was also observed with the inclusion of Si which is indicative of induced structural disorder. Silicon (Si-29) MAS NMR was also performed on both Si-TCP samples which revealed Q(0) species of Si with additional Si Q(1)/Q(2) species that may indicate a potential charge-balancing mechanism involving the inclusion of disilicate groups; additional Q(4) Si species were also observed, but only for ST10. Heating and cooling rates were briefly investigated by P-31 MAS NMR which showed no significant line broadening other than that associated with the emergence of beta-TCP which was only realised with the reagent-grade sample STO. This study provides an insight into the structural effects of Si-substitution in alpha-TCP and could provide a basis for understanding how substitution affects the physicochemical properties of the material. (C) 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KW - Ca3(PO4)2

KW - silicon

KW - bioceramics

KW - Rietveld

KW - Si-29

KW - P-31

KW - stabilized calcium phosphates

KW - in-vivo behavior

KW - hydroxyapatite granules

KW - powder diffraction

KW - alpha

KW - NMR

KW - temperature

KW - ALPHA-CA3(PO4)2

U2 - 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.11.014

DO - 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.11.014

M3 - Article

VL - 10

SP - 1443

EP - 1450

JO - Acta Biomaterialia

JF - Acta Biomaterialia

SN - 1742-7061

IS - 3

ER -