Gender Differences in Sports Participation: A Multi-Level Analysis

Tekin Kose, Yasemin Öztürk*, Kayra Özcan*

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Regular sports participation and physical activities are associated with benefits for individual wellbeing. This study investigates gender differences in sports participation in Europe. Employing Eurobarometer (88.4) survey data, this study estimates multi-level logistic regression models for sports participation. Empirical findings indicate that females are less likely to participate in sports compared to males. Sports participation is also associated with various individual-level factors such as age, education level and health status and country-level factors such as unemployment rates and geographical location. Policy makers should avoid one-fit-all frameworks and develop heterogeneous programs, especially with respect to gender, to increase sports participation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-176
Number of pages26
JournalBogazici Journal
Issue number2
Early online date1 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Gender
  • Sports Participation
  • Multi-Level Model
  • Europe


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