Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

Aysu Okbay, Jonathan P Beauchamp, Mark Alan Fontana, James J Lee, Tune H Pers, Cornelius A Rietveld, Patrick Turley, Guo-Bo Chen, Valur Emilsson, S Fleur W Meddens, Sven Oskarsson, Joseph K Pickrell, Kevin Thom, Pascal Timshel, Ronald de Vlaming, Abdel Abdellaoui, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Jonas Bacelis, Clemens Baumbach, Gyda BjornsdottirJohannes H Brandsma, Maria Pina Concas, Jaime Derringer, Nicholas A Furlotte, Tessel E Galesloot, Giorgia Girotto, Richa Gupta, Leanne M Hall, Sarah E Harris, Edith Hofer, Momoko Horikoshi, Jennifer E Huffman, Kadri Kaasik, Ioanna P Kalafati, Robert Karlsson, Augustine Kong, Jari Lahti, Sven J van der Lee, Christiaan deLeeuw, Penelope A Lind, Karl-Oskar Lindgren, Tian Liu, Massimo Mangino, Jonathan Marten, Evelin Mihailov, Michael B Miller, Peter J van der Most, Christopher Oldmeadow, Antony Payton, Lynne J Hocking, LifeLines Cohort Study

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

437 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)539-542
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume533
Issue number7604
Early online date11 May 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 May 2016

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    Okbay, A., Beauchamp, J. P., Fontana, M. A., Lee, J. J., Pers, T. H., Rietveld, C. A., Turley, P., Chen, G-B., Emilsson, V., Meddens, S. F. W., Oskarsson, S., Pickrell, J. K., Thom, K., Timshel, P., de Vlaming, R., Abdellaoui, A., Ahluwalia, T. S., Bacelis, J., Baumbach, C., ... LifeLines Cohort Study (2016). Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. Nature, 533(7604), 539-542. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17671