Geochemical evolution of the Dras-Kohistan Arc during collision with Eurasia; evidence from the Ladakh Himalaya, India

Peter Dominic Clift, R. Hannigan, J. Blusztajn, A. E. Draut

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Dras 1 Volcanic Formation of the Ladakh Himalaya, India, represents the eastern, upper crustal equivalent of the lower crustal gabbros and mantle peridotites of the Kohistan Are exposed in Pakistan. Together these form a Cretaceous intraoceanic are now located within the Indus Suture zone between India and Eurasia. During the Late Cretaceous, the Dras-Kohistan Are, which was located above a north-dipping subduction zone, collided with the south-facing active margin of Eurasia, resulting in a switch from oceanic to continental are volcanism. In the present study we analyzed samples from the pre-collisional Dras 1 Volcanic Formation and the postcollisional Kardung Volcanic Formation for a suite of trace elements and Nd isotopes. The Kardung Volcanic Formation shows more pronounced light rare earth element enrichment, higher Th/La and lower epsilon(Nd) values compared with the Dras 1 Volcanic Formation. These differences are consistent with an increase in the reworking of the continental crust by sediment subduction through the are after collision. As little as 20% of the Nd in the Dras 1 Volcanic Formation might be provided by sources such as the Karakoram, while approximately 45% of the Nd in the Kardung Volcanic Formation is from this source. However, even before collision, the Dras-Kohistan Are shows geochemical evidence for more continental sediment contamination than is seen in modern western Pacific arcs, implying its relative proximity to the Eurasian landmass. Comparison of the lava chemistry in the Dras-Kohistan Are with that in the forearc turbidites suggests that these sediments are partially postcollisional, Jurutze Formation and not all pre-collisional Nindam Formation. Thus, the Dras-Eurasia collision can be dated as Turonian-Santonian (83.5-93.5 Ma), older than it was previously considered to be, but consistent with radiometric ages from Kohistan.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-273
Number of pages18
JournalThe Island Arc
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Keywords

  • collision
  • Himalaya
  • isotopes
  • Kohistan
  • INDUS SUTURE ZONE
  • RB-SR
  • CONTINENTAL-MARGIN
  • NORTHWEST HIMALAYA
  • PAKISTAN HIMALAYA
  • VOLCANIC ARC
  • NW INDIA
  • BATHOLITH
  • MANTLE
  • ISOTOPE

Cite this

Geochemical evolution of the Dras-Kohistan Arc during collision with Eurasia; evidence from the Ladakh Himalaya, India. / Clift, Peter Dominic; Hannigan, R.; Blusztajn, J.; Draut, A. E.

In: The Island Arc, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2002, p. 255-273.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Clift, Peter Dominic ; Hannigan, R. ; Blusztajn, J. ; Draut, A. E. / Geochemical evolution of the Dras-Kohistan Arc during collision with Eurasia; evidence from the Ladakh Himalaya, India. In: The Island Arc. 2002 ; Vol. 11, No. 4. pp. 255-273.
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AU - Draut, A. E.

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AB - The Dras 1 Volcanic Formation of the Ladakh Himalaya, India, represents the eastern, upper crustal equivalent of the lower crustal gabbros and mantle peridotites of the Kohistan Are exposed in Pakistan. Together these form a Cretaceous intraoceanic are now located within the Indus Suture zone between India and Eurasia. During the Late Cretaceous, the Dras-Kohistan Are, which was located above a north-dipping subduction zone, collided with the south-facing active margin of Eurasia, resulting in a switch from oceanic to continental are volcanism. In the present study we analyzed samples from the pre-collisional Dras 1 Volcanic Formation and the postcollisional Kardung Volcanic Formation for a suite of trace elements and Nd isotopes. The Kardung Volcanic Formation shows more pronounced light rare earth element enrichment, higher Th/La and lower epsilon(Nd) values compared with the Dras 1 Volcanic Formation. These differences are consistent with an increase in the reworking of the continental crust by sediment subduction through the are after collision. As little as 20% of the Nd in the Dras 1 Volcanic Formation might be provided by sources such as the Karakoram, while approximately 45% of the Nd in the Kardung Volcanic Formation is from this source. However, even before collision, the Dras-Kohistan Are shows geochemical evidence for more continental sediment contamination than is seen in modern western Pacific arcs, implying its relative proximity to the Eurasian landmass. Comparison of the lava chemistry in the Dras-Kohistan Are with that in the forearc turbidites suggests that these sediments are partially postcollisional, Jurutze Formation and not all pre-collisional Nindam Formation. Thus, the Dras-Eurasia collision can be dated as Turonian-Santonian (83.5-93.5 Ma), older than it was previously considered to be, but consistent with radiometric ages from Kohistan.

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KW - RB-SR

KW - CONTINENTAL-MARGIN

KW - NORTHWEST HIMALAYA

KW - PAKISTAN HIMALAYA

KW - VOLCANIC ARC

KW - NW INDIA

KW - BATHOLITH

KW - MANTLE

KW - ISOTOPE

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DO - 10.1046/j.1440-1738.2002.00371.x

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JO - The Island Arc

JF - The Island Arc

SN - 1038-4871

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