Geographical distribution and relative risk of Anjozorobe virus (Thailand orthohantavirus) infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) in Madagascar

Vololoniaina Raharinosy, Marie-Marie Olive, Fehivola Mandanirina Andriamiarimanana, Soa Fy Andriamandimby, Jean-Pierre Ravalohery, Seta Andriamamonjy, Claudia Filippone, Danielle Aurore Doll Rakoto, Sandra Telfer, Jean-Michel Heraud

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Abstract

Background
Hantavirus infection is a zoonotic disease that is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome in human. Anjozorobe virus, a representative virus of Thailand orthohantavirus (THAIV), was recently discovered from rodents in Anjozorobe-Angavo forest in Madagascar. To assess the circulation of hantavirus at the national level, we carried out a survey of small terrestrial mammals from representative regions of the island and identified environmental factors associated with hantavirus infection. As we were ultimately interested in the potential for human exposure, we focused our research in the peridomestic area.

Methods
Sampling was achieved in twenty districts of Madagascar, with a rural and urban zone in each district. Animals were trapped from a range of habitats and examined for hantavirus RNA by nested RT-PCR. We also investigated the relationship between hantavirus infection probability in rats and possible risk factors by using Generalized Linear Mixed Models.

Results
Overall, 1242 specimens from seven species were collected (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Suncus murinus, Setifer setosus, Tenrec ecaudatus, Hemicentetes semispinosus). Overall, 12.4% (111/897) of Rattus rattus and 1.6% (2/125) of Mus musculus were tested positive for THAIV. Rats captured within houses were less likely to be infected than rats captured in other habitats, whilst rats from sites characterized by high precipitation and relatively low seasonality were more likely to be infected than those from other areas. Older animals were more likely to be infected, with infection probability showing a strong increase with weight.

Conclusions
We report widespread distribution of THAIV in the peridomestic rats of Madagascar, with highest prevalence for those living in humid areas. Although the potential risk of infection to human may also be widespread, our results provide a first indication of specific zone with high transmission. Gathered data will be helpful to implement policies for control and prevention of human risk infection.
Original languageEnglish
Article number83
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalVirology Journal
Volume15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 May 2018

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Madagascar
Thailand
Viruses
Infection
Hantavirus Infections
Hantavirus
Ecosystem
Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome
Zoonoses
Islands
Mammals
Rodentia
Linear Models
RNA

Keywords

  • Hantavirus
  • Anjozorobe virus
  • Thailand orthohantavirus
  • Rodent, small terrestrial mammals
  • Risk factors
  • Madagascar
  • Africa

Cite this

Raharinosy, V., Olive, M-M., Andriamiarimanana, F. M., Andriamandimby, S. F., Ravalohery, J-P., Andriamamonjy, S., ... Heraud, J-M. (2018). Geographical distribution and relative risk of Anjozorobe virus (Thailand orthohantavirus) infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) in Madagascar. Virology Journal, 15, 1-11. [83]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-018-0992-9

Geographical distribution and relative risk of Anjozorobe virus (Thailand orthohantavirus) infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) in Madagascar. / Raharinosy, Vololoniaina; Olive, Marie-Marie; Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola Mandanirina; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre; Andriamamonjy, Seta; Filippone, Claudia; Rakoto, Danielle Aurore Doll; Telfer, Sandra; Heraud, Jean-Michel.

In: Virology Journal, Vol. 15, 83, 09.05.2018, p. 1-11.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Raharinosy, V, Olive, M-M, Andriamiarimanana, FM, Andriamandimby, SF, Ravalohery, J-P, Andriamamonjy, S, Filippone, C, Rakoto, DAD, Telfer, S & Heraud, J-M 2018, 'Geographical distribution and relative risk of Anjozorobe virus (Thailand orthohantavirus) infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) in Madagascar' Virology Journal, vol. 15, 83, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-018-0992-9
Raharinosy, Vololoniaina ; Olive, Marie-Marie ; Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola Mandanirina ; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy ; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre ; Andriamamonjy, Seta ; Filippone, Claudia ; Rakoto, Danielle Aurore Doll ; Telfer, Sandra ; Heraud, Jean-Michel. / Geographical distribution and relative risk of Anjozorobe virus (Thailand orthohantavirus) infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) in Madagascar. In: Virology Journal. 2018 ; Vol. 15. pp. 1-11.
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title = "Geographical distribution and relative risk of Anjozorobe virus (Thailand orthohantavirus) infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) in Madagascar",
abstract = "BackgroundHantavirus infection is a zoonotic disease that is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome in human. Anjozorobe virus, a representative virus of Thailand orthohantavirus (THAIV), was recently discovered from rodents in Anjozorobe-Angavo forest in Madagascar. To assess the circulation of hantavirus at the national level, we carried out a survey of small terrestrial mammals from representative regions of the island and identified environmental factors associated with hantavirus infection. As we were ultimately interested in the potential for human exposure, we focused our research in the peridomestic area.MethodsSampling was achieved in twenty districts of Madagascar, with a rural and urban zone in each district. Animals were trapped from a range of habitats and examined for hantavirus RNA by nested RT-PCR. We also investigated the relationship between hantavirus infection probability in rats and possible risk factors by using Generalized Linear Mixed Models.ResultsOverall, 1242 specimens from seven species were collected (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Suncus murinus, Setifer setosus, Tenrec ecaudatus, Hemicentetes semispinosus). Overall, 12.4{\%} (111/897) of Rattus rattus and 1.6{\%} (2/125) of Mus musculus were tested positive for THAIV. Rats captured within houses were less likely to be infected than rats captured in other habitats, whilst rats from sites characterized by high precipitation and relatively low seasonality were more likely to be infected than those from other areas. Older animals were more likely to be infected, with infection probability showing a strong increase with weight.ConclusionsWe report widespread distribution of THAIV in the peridomestic rats of Madagascar, with highest prevalence for those living in humid areas. Although the potential risk of infection to human may also be widespread, our results provide a first indication of specific zone with high transmission. Gathered data will be helpful to implement policies for control and prevention of human risk infection.",
keywords = "Hantavirus, Anjozorobe virus, Thailand orthohantavirus, Rodent, small terrestrial mammals, Risk factors, Madagascar, Africa",
author = "Vololoniaina Raharinosy and Marie-Marie Olive and Andriamiarimanana, {Fehivola Mandanirina} and Andriamandimby, {Soa Fy} and Jean-Pierre Ravalohery and Seta Andriamamonjy and Claudia Filippone and Rakoto, {Danielle Aurore Doll} and Sandra Telfer and Jean-Michel Heraud",
note = "Acknowledgements We thank those who facilitated the survey: householders, heads of fokontany, local administration and health authorities from Ministry of Health. We would like to express our gratitude to the staff of the Plague Central Laboratory Unit, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar: Dr. Minoarisoa Rajerison who facilitated this study; Corinne Rahaingosoamamitiana and Soanandrasana Rahelinirina for helping to conduct and organize the field work. We would also like to thank Dr. Fanjasoa Rakotomanana and Dr. Lalaina Arivony Nomenjanahary assistance in the field trips and technical and field support. Funding This work was supported by the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar (Internal Project through ZORA: Zoonoses, Rodent and Arboviruses) and Wellcome Trust Fellowships to ST (#081705, #095171). VR was also supported though Girard’s fellowship undergraduate program from the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Geographical distribution and relative risk of Anjozorobe virus (Thailand orthohantavirus) infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) in Madagascar

AU - Raharinosy, Vololoniaina

AU - Olive, Marie-Marie

AU - Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola Mandanirina

AU - Andriamandimby, Soa Fy

AU - Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre

AU - Andriamamonjy, Seta

AU - Filippone, Claudia

AU - Rakoto, Danielle Aurore Doll

AU - Telfer, Sandra

AU - Heraud, Jean-Michel

N1 - Acknowledgements We thank those who facilitated the survey: householders, heads of fokontany, local administration and health authorities from Ministry of Health. We would like to express our gratitude to the staff of the Plague Central Laboratory Unit, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar: Dr. Minoarisoa Rajerison who facilitated this study; Corinne Rahaingosoamamitiana and Soanandrasana Rahelinirina for helping to conduct and organize the field work. We would also like to thank Dr. Fanjasoa Rakotomanana and Dr. Lalaina Arivony Nomenjanahary assistance in the field trips and technical and field support. Funding This work was supported by the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar (Internal Project through ZORA: Zoonoses, Rodent and Arboviruses) and Wellcome Trust Fellowships to ST (#081705, #095171). VR was also supported though Girard’s fellowship undergraduate program from the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

PY - 2018/5/9

Y1 - 2018/5/9

N2 - BackgroundHantavirus infection is a zoonotic disease that is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome in human. Anjozorobe virus, a representative virus of Thailand orthohantavirus (THAIV), was recently discovered from rodents in Anjozorobe-Angavo forest in Madagascar. To assess the circulation of hantavirus at the national level, we carried out a survey of small terrestrial mammals from representative regions of the island and identified environmental factors associated with hantavirus infection. As we were ultimately interested in the potential for human exposure, we focused our research in the peridomestic area.MethodsSampling was achieved in twenty districts of Madagascar, with a rural and urban zone in each district. Animals were trapped from a range of habitats and examined for hantavirus RNA by nested RT-PCR. We also investigated the relationship between hantavirus infection probability in rats and possible risk factors by using Generalized Linear Mixed Models.ResultsOverall, 1242 specimens from seven species were collected (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Suncus murinus, Setifer setosus, Tenrec ecaudatus, Hemicentetes semispinosus). Overall, 12.4% (111/897) of Rattus rattus and 1.6% (2/125) of Mus musculus were tested positive for THAIV. Rats captured within houses were less likely to be infected than rats captured in other habitats, whilst rats from sites characterized by high precipitation and relatively low seasonality were more likely to be infected than those from other areas. Older animals were more likely to be infected, with infection probability showing a strong increase with weight.ConclusionsWe report widespread distribution of THAIV in the peridomestic rats of Madagascar, with highest prevalence for those living in humid areas. Although the potential risk of infection to human may also be widespread, our results provide a first indication of specific zone with high transmission. Gathered data will be helpful to implement policies for control and prevention of human risk infection.

AB - BackgroundHantavirus infection is a zoonotic disease that is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome in human. Anjozorobe virus, a representative virus of Thailand orthohantavirus (THAIV), was recently discovered from rodents in Anjozorobe-Angavo forest in Madagascar. To assess the circulation of hantavirus at the national level, we carried out a survey of small terrestrial mammals from representative regions of the island and identified environmental factors associated with hantavirus infection. As we were ultimately interested in the potential for human exposure, we focused our research in the peridomestic area.MethodsSampling was achieved in twenty districts of Madagascar, with a rural and urban zone in each district. Animals were trapped from a range of habitats and examined for hantavirus RNA by nested RT-PCR. We also investigated the relationship between hantavirus infection probability in rats and possible risk factors by using Generalized Linear Mixed Models.ResultsOverall, 1242 specimens from seven species were collected (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Suncus murinus, Setifer setosus, Tenrec ecaudatus, Hemicentetes semispinosus). Overall, 12.4% (111/897) of Rattus rattus and 1.6% (2/125) of Mus musculus were tested positive for THAIV. Rats captured within houses were less likely to be infected than rats captured in other habitats, whilst rats from sites characterized by high precipitation and relatively low seasonality were more likely to be infected than those from other areas. Older animals were more likely to be infected, with infection probability showing a strong increase with weight.ConclusionsWe report widespread distribution of THAIV in the peridomestic rats of Madagascar, with highest prevalence for those living in humid areas. Although the potential risk of infection to human may also be widespread, our results provide a first indication of specific zone with high transmission. Gathered data will be helpful to implement policies for control and prevention of human risk infection.

KW - Hantavirus

KW - Anjozorobe virus

KW - Thailand orthohantavirus

KW - Rodent, small terrestrial mammals

KW - Risk factors

KW - Madagascar

KW - Africa

U2 - 10.1186/s12985-018-0992-9

DO - 10.1186/s12985-018-0992-9

M3 - Article

VL - 15

SP - 1

EP - 11

JO - Virology Journal

JF - Virology Journal

SN - 1743-422X

M1 - 83

ER -